Date of this Version
Front. Chem. 6:533.
One of the crucial challenges for applying Sn as an anode of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) is the dramatic volume change during lithiation/delithiation process, which causes a rapid capacity fading and then deteriorated battery performance. To address this issue, herein, we report the design and fabrication of Sn encapsulated carbon nanoboxes (denoted as Sn@C) with yolk@shell architectures. In this design, the carbon shell can facilitate the good transport kinetics whereas the hollow space between Sn and carbon shell can accommodate the volume variation during repeated charge/discharge process. Accordingly, this composite electrode exhibits a high reversible capacity of 675 mAh g−1 at a current density of 0.8 A g−1 after 500 cycles and preserves as high as 366mAh g−1 at a higher current density of 3 A g−1 even after 930 cycles. The enhanced electrochemical performance can be ascribed to the crystal size reduction of Sn cores and the formation of polymeric gel-like layer outside the electrode surface after long-term cycles, resulting in improved capacity and enhanced rate performance.