Civil and Environmental Engineering


Date of this Version



Teymouri, M.; Behfarnia, K.; Shabani, A. Mix Design Effects on the Durability of Alkali-Activated Slag Concrete in a Hydrochloric Acid Environment. Sustainability 2021, 13, 8096. su13148096




Because of its high strength, energy reduction, and low environmental impact, researchers have encouraged considering alkali-activated slag concrete (AASC) as a potential alternative to conventional concrete. In this study, the impact of mix design parameters on the durability of AASC, made with ground granulated blast furnace slag and activated with different alkaline solutions (NaOH, KOH, and Na2SiO3 ) immersed up to six months in a hydrochloric acid bath with pH = 3, has been investigated. A total of 13 mix designs were made in a way that, in addition to the type of alkaline solution, considered three other parameters, namely the molarity of alkaline solutions, the weight ratio of alkaline solutions to slag, and the weight ratio of alkaline solutions to sodium silicate. Visual inspections displayed that the AASC samples almost remained intact after exposure to an HCl acid solution with pH = 3 for up to 6 months, while the OPC sample experienced deleterious deterioration. The results clearly show that AASC outperformed OPC concrete when it comes to durability in an HCl acid solution. The strength reduction and weight loss of AASC compared with OPC concrete were approximately one-tenth and one-fifth, respectively. The AASC samples containing potassium hydroxide showed a higher strength reduction and weight loss in the HCl acid solution than the samples made with sodium hydroxide.