Classics and Religious Studies


Date of this Version

January 1992


Published in The Madrid Qumran Congress: Proceedings of the International Congress on the Dead Sea Scrolls, Madrid 18–21 March, 1991. Edited by Julio Trebolle Barrera and Luis Vegas Montaner. Volume One. E.J. Brill: Leiden • New York • Köln / Editorial Complutense: Madrid, 1992. Pages 217–228.
In STUDIES ON THE TEXTS OF THE DESERT OF JUDAH, edited by F. Garcia Martinez & A. S. van der Woude, Volume XI, 1.
Copyright © E.J. Brill, Leiden, The Netherlands 1992. Used by permission.


4Q364 and 365, part of the group of compositions (4Q364, 365, 366 and 367) provisionally entitled 4Q Pentateuchal Paraphrases, are part of the lot of Qumran manuscripts originally assigned to John Strugnell for publication. Strugnell, in 1989, asked me to join my colleague, Professor Emanuel Tov of the Hebrew University, in preparing these manuscripts for publication. This paper serves as an introduction and first statement on these manuscripts.

4Q364 and 365 are preserved on 20 plates of material, which contain about 150 fragments of text. The fragments range in size from two columns, preserving 15 lines, to fragments containing no more than four or five letters. The date of the manuscripts, according to paleographic criteria, is late Hasmonean (c. 75-50 BCE). The orthography of the scroll is fairly full, with most vowels marked and the use of long endings. The two scrolls preserve extensive material from all five books of the Pentateuch, the extant text beginning in Genesis 2 and then preserving, in fragmentary form, parts of the text through Deut 19.

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