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La transicion democratica espanola vista desde El Papus, El Víbora y Madriz
Spain’s transition to democracy is one of the most important episodes in the country’s history, and therefore, one of the most studied periods. In this dissertation I will study this period through its comics and I show how comics –particularly the three magazines mentioned in the project’s title– contributed to the construction of political and social discourse of the Transition period and how they shaped and reflected different political responses to democracy. Together, the three magazines represent different moments in the Transition and allow one to trace the changes in Spaniards’ reactions to this period. In the early years of the Transition, El Papus (1973) appeared as a political humor graphic magazine that became the reference for caustic criticism. Cartoons of the El Papus were mostly a harsh satire of politics. With the rise of desencanto (disenchantment with the new democracy), El Víbora (1979) began production to express the Spaniard’s frustration with politics and lust for change. Subtitled as “Comix for Survivors”, El Víbora was an alternative magazine that offered social criticism, radical politics, hardcore sex, etc. Finally, the magazine Madriz, published in 1984, acted as a representation of the new post-modern Spanish society being promoted by the new municipal political power. Embracing the Movida’s culture made Madrid unique in the context of the mid-1980s, as no other region in Spain had opened itself to such a level of modernity. Madriz became the best reference of this modernity happening in Madrid between 1984 and 1987, during the last years of the Transition.
Rahimighazikalayeh, Delaram, "La transicion democratica espanola vista desde El Papus, El Víbora y Madriz" (2019). ETD collection for University of Nebraska - Lincoln. AAI13863969.