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The optical Hall effect in three- and two-dimensional materials
In this thesis 3D and 2D sample systems are investigated by magneto-optic generalized spectroscopic ellipsometry and classical and quantum mechanical optical Hall effects (OHEs) are observed and discussed. The OHE is a physical phenomenon which, in analogy to the transverse and longitudinal conductivity in the electrical Hall effect, describes the occurrence of transverse and longitudinal birefringence caused by the non-time-reciprocal response of electric charge carriers subject to an external magnetic field. As part of this work the first integrated mid-infrared, far-infrared and terahertz optical Hall effect instrument (iOHE-instrument) was designed and built. The iOHE-instrument allows to conduct generalized spectroscopic ellipsometry (GSE) experiments in magnetic fields up to 8 T, covers an ultra-wide spectral range from 3 cm–1 to 7000 cm–1 (0.1-210 THz or 0.4-870 meV), and provides sample temperatures between room temperature and 1.4 K. The instrument comprises two ellipsometer sub-system equipped with multiple light sources and detectors, operated in polarizer-sample-rotating-analyzer configuration, granting access to the upper left 3x3 block of the normalized 4x4 Mueller matrix. Employing the iOHE-instrument, the OHE is studied in 3D volume materials. A tellurium doped n-type GaAs sample represents the class of materials with a single valley in the valance band, while a phosphorus doped n-type silicon sample represents the class of materials with multiple valleys in the valance band. For both 3D sample systems OHE data and corresponding model analysis is presented, discussed, and carrier density, mobility and effective mass parameters are determined. Free charge carriers in 2D confinement are studied for a metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) grown AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor structure (HEMT), a highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) sample and an epitaxial graphene sample grown on 6 H-SiC. The temperature dependence of free charge carrier parameters is discussed for the HEMT sample, while quantum mechanical inter-Landau-level (LL) transitions are observed for the HOPG and graphene sample. The polarization selection rules and dielectric tensor properties for inter-LL transitions are determined.
Kuhne, Philipp Julius Christian, "The optical Hall effect in three- and two-dimensional materials" (2014). ETD collection for University of Nebraska - Lincoln. AAI3618595.