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Allozyme variation in New World screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel), populations from Brazil was examined. Variability was observed in 8 of 13 enzyme loci and the frequency of the most common allele was <0.95 for seven loci. Observed and expected heterozygosities were 0.159 and 0.165, respectively. Comparisons of the Brazilian populations with previously studied populations from Costa Rica resulted in Nei's genetic distances of between 0.000 and 0. 006, with the greatest distance being between populations within Brazil. Comparisons with Mexican populations using only three loci resulted in genetic distances ≤0.031. Goodness-of-fit statistics for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and Wright's F statistics indicated small deviations from expected equilibrium genotype frequencies and low levels of differentiation between populations within Brazil. Differentiation among screwworm populations from Brazil, Costa Rica, and Mexico was minimal.