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Monophyly of a group of four species of Anastrepha is proposed based on characters of the head and the male terminalia. The group includes A. schausi Aldrich; A. Jernandezi Caraballo; A. hermosa Norrbom, n. sp.; and A. bellicauda Norrbom, n. sp. Sexual dimorphism in these species is noted. A discussion of morphological terminology in the Tephritoidea, especially concerning female terminalia, is presented.