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Ant species assemblages have been used as biological indicators of environmental condition in many different ecosystems. To assess the potential of using ants as environmental indicators of agroecosystem condition, ants were collected from a stratified random sample of agricultural fields planted in annually harvested herbaceous crops at 90 sites in North Carolina and Virginia. The ants were identified to species and correlations with soil, management and crop variables were examined as the 1st step in developing an environmental indicator of agroecosystem condition. A total of 41 species of ants was found. Ant species assemblages were found to differ significantly between the fields and the field margin. Ant species assemblages were correlated with soil variables, tillage practices, and insecticide use, suggesting that ants have potential as a biological indicator of agroecosystem condition.