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The only EPA-registered chemical for lethal control of winter roosting blackbird (Icterinae) and European starling (Sturnus vulgaris) populations is Compound PA-14 Avian Lethal Agent (PA-14). Between 1978 and 1987, 39 PA-14 spray operations, 15 by helicopter and 24 by ground-based spray systems, have been conducted at 33 winter roosts in Kentucky, Tennessee, and Alabama. In-roost bird mortality for the aerial operations have been poor, averaging only 4% of the pretreatment roost populations or 114,000 birds killed per spray operation. Although very labor-intensive, a ground-based sprinkler system application method has proven much more successful, averaging 67% in-roost bird mortality for 17 spray operations or 287,000 birds killed per operation. A much less labor-intensive ground-based spray system using" a pivotal water cannon and chemical injector pump is presently being developed and tested. Results of 7 test sprays conducted in 1986 and 1987 showed an average 57% in-roost bird mortality (203,000 birds killed per spray operation) and investigations into the bird control uses and limitations of this system are continuing.