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This article discusses managing nitrogen and using phosphorus and other nutrients for grass pastures and hay-lands. Pastures are important to many livestock producers in Nebraska, but production from many pastures is low. Research shows that fertilizing, weed control and rotational grazing increases grass production from pastures, resulting in greater livestock production. Fertilizing and controlling weeds on haylands also increases production. Since more plant material is removed when land is managed as hayland, more attention needs to be paid to fertilization. In addition to increasing grass production, fertilizing can improve forage quality. On-the-farm demonstrations show that fertilizing increases the amount of beef produced per acre, even in a dry year. This increased production is primarily a result of added carrying capacity, rather than an increase in average daily gain.