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This NebGuide discusses when soybean seed should be inoculated and why, and provides recommendations on inoculant types to use. Soybeans can obtain up to half of their nitrogen needs from the air when nitrogen-fixing rhizobia bacteria are present in the soil. Nitrogen fixation is a result of the symbiotic (beneficial to both) relationship of rhizobia and plants. Establishing rhizobia (inoculation) in a field that has never grown soybeans is needed to insure nitrogen fixation. Reinoculation may be necessary in fields with a past history of soybeans.