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Within this group (section Amphilophus) of Nicaraguan cichlid fishes, we recognize two of the eight named species, Cichlasoma labiatum (Günther) and C. citrinellum (Günther). A new species from Lake Apoyo, C. zaliosum Barlow, is described. The red devil cichlid (C. labiatum) occurs only in the Great Lakes, but the Midas cichlid (C. citrinellum) is found in most of the surrounding lakes as well, and also in Costa Rica; where the two species are sympatric they differ most from one another. In Lakes Masaya and Jiloá some individuals of C. citrinellum show features of C. labiatum, apparently as a result of introgressive hybridization. Cichlasoma zaliosum bears a superficial resemblance to C. labiatum due to elongation, but a detailed analysis of morphometric features indicates a closer relationship to sympatric C. citrinellum.