U.S. Department of Agriculture: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service


Date of this Version



Zoonoses Public Health 58 (2011) 169–177; doi: 10.1111/j.1863-2378.2010.01335.x


Ontario initiated a red fox (Vulpes vulpes) oral rabies vaccination (ORV) programme in 1989. This study utilized a benefit-cost analysis to determine if this ORV programme was economically worthwhile. Between 1979 and 1989, prior to ORV baiting, the average annual human post-exposure treatments, positive red fox rabies diagnostic tests and indemnity payments for livestock lost to rabies were 2248, 1861 and $246 809, respectively. After baiting, from 1990 to 2000, a 35%, 66% and 41% decrease in post-exposure treatments, animal rabies tests and indemnity payments was observed, respectively. These reductions were viewed as benefits of the ORV programme, whereas total costs were those associated with ORV baiting. Multiple techniques were used to estimate four different benefit streams and the total estimated benefits ranged from $35 486 316 to $98 413 217. The annual mean ORV programme cost was $6 447 720, with total programme costs of $77 372 637. The average benefit-cost ratios over the analysis period were .49, 1.06, 1.27 and 1.36, indicating overall programme efficiency in three of the four conservative scenarios.