U.S. Department of Agriculture: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service


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From Wildlife in Airport Environments: Preventing Animal-Aircraft Collisions through Science-Based Management, ed. T.L. DeVault, B.F. Blackwell, & J.L. Belant (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2013).


U.S. government work.


In 1990, the 190 member nations of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) adopted, in Annex 14 to the Convention on Civil International Aviation, three recommended management practices regarding bird hazards to aviation. The recommended practices required that aviation authorities within each nation (1) assess the extent of the hazard posed by birds at and in the vicinity of airports certificated for passenger traffic, (2) take necessary action to decrease the number of birds, and (3) eliminate or prevent the establishment of any site in the vicinity of the airport that could attract birds and thereby present a danger to aviation. Because of the increasing threat posed by birds to aviation worldwide, member states voted to make these recommendations mandatory ICAO standards, effective November 2003. In 2009, ICAO expanded these standards to include terrestrial wildlife such as large mammals and reptiles that pose a risk at airports (ICAO 2009).

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