U.S. Department of Agriculture: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service


Date of this Version



McKee, S., J. Elser, M. Miller, L. Liu, R. Miller, S.S. Shwiff, and SA. Shwiff. 2022. Economic damages of wild pigs in non-traditional areas: from the fairway to the after life. Western Economics Forum 20(1):6-19.


U.S. government work


Invasive wild pigs are widely known to cause damage to agricultural properties and commodities, but less has been reported about damages to other types of property. A survey was distributed to golf courses and cemeteries across Texas to explore the extent of damage these properties experience. While both property types reported significant damages, golf courses were found to experience more damage than cemeteries. Using average reported costs and predicted county-level damage, total costs for all golf courses and cemeteries across the state were estimated to exceed $1.6 million USD per year.