U.S. Department of Agriculture: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service


Date of this Version

March 2006


Published in BioScience 56:3 (March 2006), pp. 253-259, which is © 2006 American Institute of Biological Sciences. http://www.aibs.org/bioscience/


The loss of large carnivores at the edges of parks, preserves, and human habitations threatens the conservation of many species. Thus, effective predation management is a conservation issue, and tools to mitigate conflicts between humans and predators are required. Both disruptive-stimulus (e.g., fladry, Electronic Guards, radio-activated guards) and aversive-stimulus (e.g., electronic training collars, less-than-lethal ammunition) approaches are useful, and technological advances have led to many new, commercially available methods. Evaluating the biological and economic efficiency of these methods is important. However, social and psychological effects should also be considered. The management of animal damage to human property is necessary, and methods that allow the coexistence of livestock and large predators must be employed. With further research and development that includes interdisciplinary approaches to management methods, biologists may be better able to conserve large carnivore species by ameliorating human conflicts with them.