U.S. Department of Agriculture: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service


Date of this Version



Published in Forest Ecology and Management 257 (2009) 2319–2326.


Invasive feral swine (Sus scrofa) cause deleterious impacts to ecosystem processes and functioning throughout their worldwide distribution, including forested ecosystems in the United States. Unfortunately, many feral swine damage management programs are conducted in a piecemeal fashion, are not adequately funded, and lack clearly stated or realistic objectives. This review paper identifies damage caused by feral swine to forest resources and presents techniques used to prevent and control feral swine damage. Concluding points related to planning a feral swine damage management program are: (1) the value of using a variety of techniques in an integrated fashion cannot be overstated; (2) there is value in using indices for both feral swine populations and their damage pre and post management activities; (3) innovative technologies will increasing be of value in the pursuit of feral swine damage reduction; and (4) though not appropriate in every situation, there is value in involving the public in feral swine damage management decisions and activities.