U.S. Department of Agriculture: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service


Date of this Version



Published in Crop Protection 28 (2009) 364–366.


Several protein sources were tested as deer repellents with captive deer. Black-tailed deer were offered Western redcedar seedlings treated with corn gluten meal, feather meal, poultry blood, hydrolyzed casein, or a control (latex sticker used for treatment proteins). After 37 days, feather meal and hydrolyzed casein provided equivalent protection against browse damage (only 23% of seedlings significantly browsed). Poultry blood provided less browse protection (44% browsed), while browse damage to seedlings treated with corn gluten meal (73% browsed) was not statistically different than the control (100% browsed). Based on the efficacy of feather meal and its low material cost, this protein hydrolysate should be investigated for use in commercial deer repellent formulations.