The mission of USDA APHIS Wildlife Services (WS) is to provide Federal leadership and expertise to resolve wildlife conflicts to allow people and wildlife to coexist. WS conducts program delivery, research, and other activities through its Regional and State Offices, the National Wildlife Research Center (NWRC) and its Field Stations, as well as through its National Programs.

This site contains publications of WS or its staff. Material prepared by employees of the US Government in the course of their official duties cannot be copyrighted.


Evidence for continental-scale dispersal of antimicrobial resistant bacteria by landfill-foraging gulls, Christina A. Ahlstrom, Mariëlle L. van Toor, Hanna Woksepp, Jeffrey C. Chandler, John A. Reed, Andrew B. Reeves, Jonas Waldenström, Alan B. Franklin, David C. Douglas, Jonas Bonnedahl, and Andrew M. Ramey

Estimating wildlife strike costs at US airports: A machine learning approach, Levi Altringer, Jordan Navin, Michael J. Begier, Stephanie A. Shwiff, and Aaron M. Anderson

Toxoplasma gondii prevalence in carnivorous wild birds in the eastern United States, Sawsan Ammar, Liberty Wood, Chunlei Su, Maria Spriggs, Justin Brown, Kyle Van Why, and Richard Gerhold

Spatial transferability of expert opinion models for American beaver habitat, Isidro Barela, Leslie M. Burger, Guiming Wang, Kristine O. Evans, Qingmin Meng, and Jimmy D. Taylor

Multi-level movement response of invasive wild pigs (Sus scrofa) to removal, Guillaume Bastille-Rousseau, Peter E. Schlichting, David A. Keiter, Joshua B. Smith, John C. Kilgo, George Wittemyer, Kurt C. Vercauteren, James C. Beasley, and Kim M. Pepin

Evaluation of a warfarin bait for controlling invasive wild pigs (Sus scrofa), James C. Beasley, Lindsay M. Clontz, Allison Rakowski, Nathan P. Snow, and Kurt C. Vercauteren

Oral Rabies Vaccination of Small Indian Mongooses (Urva auropunctata) with ONRAB via Ultralite Baits, Are R. Berentsen, Israel Leinbach, Mel J. Rivera-Rodriguez, and Amy T. Gilbert

European Starling Nest‐site Selection Given Enhanced Direct Nest Predation Risk, Bradley Blackwell, Thomas W. Seamans, Morgan Pfeiffer, and Bruce N. Buckingham

Impacts of a large invasive mammal on water quality in riparian ecosystems, Sara Bolds, B. Graeme Lockaby, Stephen S. Ditchkoff, Mark D. Smith, and Kurt C. Vercauteren

Rabies post-exposure healthcare-seeking behaviors and perceptions: Results from a knowledge, attitudes, and practices survey, Uganda, 2013, Sarah C. Bonaparte, Laura Adams, Barnabas Bakamutumaho, Galileu Barbosa Costa, Julie M. Cleaton, Amy Gilbert, Modupe Osinubi, Emily G. Pieracci, Sergio Recuenco, Victor Tugumizemu, Joseph Wamala, and Ryan M. Wallace

Evaluating potential effects of solar power facilities on wildlife from an animal behavior perspective, Rachel Y. Chock, Barbara Clucas, Elizabeth K. Peterson, Bradley Blackwell, Daniel T. Blumstein, Kathleen Church, Esteban Fernández-Juricic, Gabriel Francescoli, Alison L. Greggor, Paul Kemp, Gabriela M. Pinho, Peter M. Sanzenbacher, Bruce A. Schulte, and Pauline Toni

Food habits of wintering double-crested cormorants in the Mississippi Delta, Terrel W. Christie, Brian S. Dorr, J. Brian Davis, Luke A. Roy, Carole R. Engle, Katie Hanson-Dorr, and Anita M. Kelly

Distribution and abundance of scaup using baitfish and sportfish farms in eastern Arkansas, Stephen A. Clements, Brian S. Dorr, Brian Davis, Luke A. Roy, Carole R. Engle, Katie C. Hanson-Dorr, and Anita M. Kelly

Behavioral state resource selection in invasive wild pigs in the Southeastern United States, Lindsay M. Clontz, Kim M. Pepin, Kurt C. Vercauteren, and James C. Beasley

Evidence on the effectiveness of small unmanned aircraft systems (sUAS) as a survey tool for North American terrestrial, vertebrate animals: a systematic map protocol, Jared A. Elmore, Michael F. Curran, Kristine O. Evans, Sathishkumar Samiappan, Meilun Zhou, Morgan B. Pfeiffer, Bradley F. Blackwell, and Raymond B. Iglay

Recolonizing carnivores: Is cougar predation behaviorally mediated by bears?, Kristin N. Engebretsen, Jon P. Beckmann, Carl W. Lackey, Alyson M. Andreasen, Cody Schroeder, Pat Jackson, and Julie K. Young

Principal economic effects of cormorant predation on catfish farms, Carole R. Engle, Terrel W. Christie, Brian S. Dorr, Ganesh Kumar, Luke A. Roy, and Anita M. Kelly

Economic effects of predation by scaup on baitfish and sportfish farms, Carole R. Engle, Stephen Clements, Brian S. Dorr, J. Brian Davis, Luke A. Roy, and Anita M. Kelly

Avian Influenza A Viruses Reassort and Diversify Differently in Mallards and Mammals, Ketaki Ganti, Anish Bagga, Juliana DaSilva, Samuel S. Shepard, John R. Barnes, Susan A. Shriner, Katia Koelle, and Anice C. Lowen

Avian Influenza A Viruses Reassort and Diversify Differently in Mallards and Mammals, Ketaki Ganti, Anish Bagga, Juliana DaSilva, Samuel S. Shepard, John R. Barnes, Susan A. Shriner, Katia Koelle, and Anice C. Lowen

Biodetection of a specific odor signature in mallard feces associated with infection by low pathogenic avian influenza A virus, Glen J. Golden, Meredith Jj. Grady, Hailey E. McLean, Susan A. Shriner, Airn E. Hartwig, Richard A. Bowen, and Bruce A. Kimball

Embracing Dynamic Models for Gene Drive Management, Andrew J. Golnar, Emily W. Ruell, Alun L. Lloyd, and Kim M. Pepin

Continental-scale dynamics of avian influenza in U.S. waterfowl are driven by demography, migration, and temperature, Erin E. Gorsich, Colleen T. Webb, Andrew A. Merton, Jennifer A. Hoeting, Ryan S. Miller, Matthew Farnsworth, Seth R. Swafford, Thomas J. DeLiberto, Kerri Pedersen, Alan B. Franklin, Robert G. McLean, Kenneth R. Wilson, and Paul Doherty

Environmental correlates of genetic variation in the invasive European starling in North America, Natalie R. Hofmeister, Scott J. Werner, and Irby J. Lovette

Population genomic transformations induced by isolation of wild bird avian influenza viruses (Orthomyxoviridae) in embryonated chicken eggs, Matthew W. Hopken, Antoinette J. Piaggio, K. L. Pabilonia, James Pierce, Theodore Anderson, Courtney Pierce, and Zaid Abdo

Temporal and Spatial Blood Feeding Patterns of Urban Mosquitoes in the San Juan Metropolitan Area, Puerto Rico, Matthew W. Hopken, Limarie J. Reyes-Torres, Nicole Scavo, Antoinette J. Piaggio, Zaid Abdo, Daniel Taylor, James Pierce, and Donald A. Yee

Peptide ELISA and FRET-qPCR Identified a Significantly Higher Prevalence of Chlamydia suis in Domestic Pigs Than in Feral Swine from the State of Alabama, USA, Md Monirul Hoque, Folasade Adekanmbi, Subarna Barua, Kh. Shamsur Rahman, Virginia Aida, Brian Anderson, Anil Poudel, Anwar Kalalah, Sara Bolds, Steven Madere, Steven Kitchens, Stuart Price, Vienna Brown, B. Graeme Lockaby, Constantinos S. Kyriakis, Bernhard Kaltenboeck, and Chengming Wang

Serological Responses of Raccoons and Striped Skunks to Ontario Rabies Vaccine Bait in West Virginia during 2012–2016, Shylo R. Johnson, Dennis Slate, Kathleen M. Nelson, Amy J. Davis, Samual A. Mills, John T. Forbes, Kurt VerCauteren, Amy T. Gilbert, and Richard B. Chipman

Inefficiency of anthraquinone-based avian repellents when applied to sunflower: the importance of crop vegetative and floral characteristics in field applications, Brandon Kaiser, Burton L. Johnson, Mike Ostlie, Scott J. Werner, and Page E. Klug

Diets of double-crested cormorants in the Lake Winnebago System, Wisconsin, Ryan P. Koenigs, Daniel J. Dembkowski, Charles D. Lovell, Daniel A. Isermann, and Adam D. Nickel

Landscape use by fishers (Pekania pennanti): core areas differ in habitat than the entire home range, Jennifer R. Kordosky, Eric M. Gese, Craig M. Thompson, Patricia A. Terletzky, Kathryn L. Purcell, and Jon D. Schneiderman

Modelling the factors affecting the probability for local rabies elimination by strategic control, Johann L. Kotzé, John Duncan Grewar, and Aaron M. Anderson

Improved Strategies for Handling Entire Sounders of Wild Pigs, Michael Lavelle, Nathan P. Snow, Christine K. Ellis, Joe M. Halseth, Justin W. Fischer, Michael P. Glow, Eric H. VanNatta, Bethany A. Friesenhahn, and Kurt C. Vercauteren

Surgical sterilization impacts on behavior of coyote pairs, Tyler Leary, Jeffrey T. Schultz, and Julie K. Young

H7N1 Low Pathogenicity Avian Influenza Viruses in Poultry in the United States During 2018, Dong-Hun Lee, Mary Lea Killian, Thomas J. DeLiberto, Xiu-Feng Wan, Li Lei, David E. Swayne, and Mia Kim Torchetti

Estimation of wildlife damage from federal crop insurance data, Sophie McKee, Stephanie A. Shwiff, and Aaron M. Anderson

Understanding tolerance for an invasive species: An investigation of hunter acceptance capacity for wild pigs (Sus scrofa) in Texas, Hailey E. McLean, Tara L. Teel, Alan Bright, Lauren M. Jaebker, John M. Tomecek, Maureen G. Frank, Rachael L. Connally, Stephanie A. Shwiff, and Keith M. Carlisle

Great Expectations: Deconstructing the Process Pathways Underlying Beaver-Related Restoration, Caroline S. Nash, Gordon E. Grant, Susan Charnley, Jason B. Dunham, Hannah Gosnell, Mark B. Hausner, David S. Pilliod, and Jimmy Taylor

Powassan Virus Experimental Infections in Three Wild Mammal Species, Nicole M. Nemeth, J. Jeffrey Root, Airn E. Hartwig, Richard A. Bowen, and Angela M. Bosco-Lauth

Variation in Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection in definitive and intermediate hosts in Hawaii, a global hotspot of rat lungworm disease, Chris Niebuhr, Shane R. Siers, Israel Leinbach, Lisa M. Kaluna, and Susan I. Jarvi

Factors Influencing Survival Rates of Pronghorn Fawns in Idaho, Brett R. Panting, Eric M. Gese, Mary M. Conner, and Scott Bergen

Using Enclosed Y-Mazes to Assess Chemosensory Behavior in Reptiles, M. Rockwell Parker, Andrea F. Currylow, Eric A. Tillman, Charlotte J. Robinson, Jilian M. Josimovich, Isabella M.G. Bukovich, Lauren A. Nazarian, Melia G. Nafus, Bryan M. Kluever, and Amy A. Yackel Adams

A framework for surveillance of emerging pathogens at the human-animal interface: Pigs and coronaviruses as a case study, Kim M. Pepin, Ryan S. Miller, and Mark Q. Wilber

Modeling Mongoose Rabies in the Caribbean: A Model-Guided Fieldwork Approach to Identify Research Priorities, Caroline C. Sauvé, Erin E. Rees, Amy T. Gilbert, Are R. Berentsen, Agathe Allibert, and Patrick A. Leighton

The evolutionary consequences of human–wildlife conflict in cities, Christopher J. Schell, Lauren Stanton, Julie K. Young, Lisa Angeloni, Joanna E. Lambert, Stewart W. Breck, and Maureen H. Murray

SARS-CoV-2 Exposure in Escaped Mink, Utah, USA, Susan A. Shriner, Jeremy W. Ellis, J. Jeffrey Root, Annette Roug, Scott R. Stopak, Gerald W. Wiscomb, Jared R. Zierenberg, Hon S. Ip, Mia Kim Torchetti, and Thomas J. DeLiberto

Evaluating lethal toxicant doses for the largest individuals of an invasive vertebrate predator with indeterminate growth, Shane R. Siers, Scott M. Goetz, Rachel M. Volsteadt, and Melia G. Nafus

Daily and Landscape Influences of Species Visitation to Toxic Bait Sites for Wild Pigs, Nathan P. Snow, Joseph M. Halseth, Michael P. Glow, Michael Lavelle, Justin Fischer, Eric H. VanNatta, and Kurt C. Vercauteren

Anthraquinone repellent seed treatment on corn reduces feeding by wild pigs, Nathan P. Snow, Joseph M. Halseth, Scott J. Werner, and Kurt C. Vercauteren

Efficacy and risks from a modified sodium nitrite toxic bait for wild pigs, Nathan P. Snow, Jason Wishart, Justin A. Foster, Linton D. Staples, and Kurt C. Vercauteren

Variation in reversal learning by three generalist mesocarnivores, Lauren A. Stanton, Eli S. Bridge, Joost Huizinga, Shylo R. Johnson, Julie K. Young, and Sarah Benson‑Amram

Evaluating the effects of mountain beaver (Aplodontia rufa) management on conifer stocking in western Oregon, Jimmy D. Taylor and Vanessa M. Petro

A framework to evaluate whether to pool or separate behaviors in a multilayer network, Annemarie van der Marel, Sanjay Prasher, Chelsea Carminito, Claire L. O'Connell, Alexa Phillips, Bryan M. Kluever, and Elizabeth A. Hobson

Measuring adrenal and reproductive hormones in hair from Southern Beaufort Sea polar bears (Ursus maritimus), Marilize Van der Walt, Lorin A. Neuman-Lee, Patricia A. Terletzky, Todd C. Atwood, Eric M. Gese, and Susannah S. French

Avian Use of Exotic Street Treescapes in Metropolitan Areas of Phoenix, Arizona, Brian E. Washburn, Karen Hoss, and David L. Bergman

Toxicity of sodium nitrite-based vertebrate pesticides for European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris), Scott J. Werner, Shelagh T. DeLiberto, Hailey E. McLean, Katherine E. Horak, and Kirt C. VerCauteren

A Sonic Net reduces damage to sunflower by blackbirds (Icteridae): Implications for broad-scale agriculture and crop establishment, Amanda K. Werrell, Page E. Klug, Romuald N. Lipcius, and John P. Swaddle

Best Management Practices for Trapping Furbearers in the United States, H. Bryant White, Gordon R. Batcheller, Edward K. Boggess, Clifford L. Brown, Joseph W. Butfiloski, Thomas A. Decker, John D. Erb, Michael W. Fall, David A. Hamilton, Tim L. Hiller, George F. Hubert Jr., Matthew J. Lovallo, John F. Olson, and Nathan M. Roberts

Surveys for ticks on wildlife hosts and in the environment at Asian longhorned tick (Haemaphysalis longicornis)-positive sites in Virginia and New Jersey, 2018, Seth A. White, Sarah N. Bevins, Mark G. Ruder, David Shaw, Stacey L. Vigil, Adam Randall, Thomas J. DeLiberto, Kristen Dominguez, Alec T. Thompson, James W. Mertins, Jeffrey T. Alfred, and Michael J. Yabsley

Effects of social structure and management on risk of disease establishment in wild pigs, Anni Yang, Peter E. Schlichting, Bethany Wight, Wesley M. Anderson, Sarah M. Chinn, Mark Q. Wilber, Ryan S. Miller, James C. Beasley, Raoul Boughton, Kurt C. Vercauteren, George Wittemyer, and Kim M. Pepin

Invasive Species in Puerto Rico: The View From El Yunque, Jess Zimmerman, Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, and Aaron B. Shiels


Understanding and Preventing Bird Damage on Dairies, Amber Adams-Progar, Karen Steensma, Stephanie A. Shwiff, Julie L. Elser, Susan Kerr, and Tyler P. Caskin

Competing reproductive and physiological investments in an all‑female lizard, the Colorado checkered whiptail, Lise M. Aubry, Spencer B. Hudson, Bryan M. Kluever, Alison C. Webb, and Susannah S. French

Monk Parakeet (Myiopsitta monarchus Boddaert, 1783), Michael L. Avery

Control or eradication: Problems in the management of invasive birds, Michael L. Avery and Chris J. Feare

Relationships between survival and habitat suitability of semi- aquatic mammals, Isidro Barela, Leslie M. Burger, Jimmy Taylor, Kristine O. Evans, Ryo Ogawa, Lance McClintic, and Guiming Wang

Local adaptation constrains drought tolerance in a tropical foundation tree, Kasey E. Barton, Casey Jones, Kyle F. Edwards, Aaron B. Shiels, and Tiffany Knight

Additive and non-additive responses of seedlings to simulated herbivory and drought, Kasey Barton and Aaron B. Shiels

Talking trash in the Big Apple: mitigating bird strikes near the North Shore Marine Transfer Station, Stephan J. Beffre and Brian E. Washburn

Placebo Oral Rabies Vaccine Bait Uptake by Small Indian Mongooses (Herpestes auropunctatus) in Southwestern Puerto Rico, Are R. Berentsen, Richard B. Chipman, Kathleen M. Nelson, Kenneth S. Gruver, Frank Boyd, Steven F. Volker, Amy J. Davis, Ad Vos, Steffen Ortmann, and Amy Gilbert

Predator scent and visual cue applied to nest boxes fail to dissuade European Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) from nesting, Bradley Blackwell, Thomas W. Seamans, Morgan Pfeiffer, and Bruce N. Buckingham

Technical Limitations Associated With Molecular Barcoding of Arthropod Bloodmeals Taken From North American Deer Species, Erin M. Borland, Daniel A. Hartman, Matthew W. Hopken, Antoinette J. Piaggio, and Rebekah C. Kading

Timing and extent of crop damage by wild pigs (Sus scrofa Linnaeus) to corn and peanut fields, C. M. Boyce, Kurt C. Vercauteren, and James C. Beasley

Fish-Eating Birds on Catfish Ponds in the Mississippi Delta, Paul Burr, Jimmy Avery, Garrett Street, Bronson Strickland, and Brian Dorr

Piscivorous Bird Use of Aquaculture and Natural Water Bodies in Mississippi, Paul C. Burr, Jimmy I. Avery, Garrett M. Street, Bronson K. Strickland, and Brian S. Dorr

Historic and contemporary use of catfish aquaculture by piscivorous birds in the Mississippi Delta, Paul C. Burr, Jimmy L. Avery, Garrett M. Street, Bronson K. Strickland, and Brian S. Dorr

Bird-livestock interactions associated with increased cattle fecal shedding of ciprofloxacin-resistant Escherichia coli within feedlots in the United States, James C. Carlson, Jeffrey C. Chandler, Bledar Bisha, Jeffrey T. LeJeune, and Thomas E. Wittum

The Role of European Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) in the Dissemination of Multidrug- Resistant Escherichia coli among Concentrated Animal feeding Operations, Jeffrey C. Chandler, Jennifer E. Anders, Nicolas A. Blouin, James C. Carlson, Jeffrey T. LeJeune, Lawrence D. Goodridge, Baolin Wang, Leslie A. Day, Anna M. Mangan, Dustin A. Reid, Shannon M. Coleman, Matthew W. Hopken, and Bledar Bisha

Validation of a screening method for the detection of colistin-resistant E. coli containing mcr-1 in feral swine feces, Jeffrey C. Chandler, Alan B. Franklin, S. N. Bevins, Kevin T. Bentler, Jonas Bonnedahl, Christina A. Ahlstrom, Bledar Bisha, and Susan A. Shriner

An evaluation of bird and bat mortality at wind turbines in the Northeastern United States, Daniel Y. Choi, Thomas W. Wittig, and Bryan M. Kluever

Cormorant Predation of Commercial Catfish Aquaculture in the Mississippi Delta, Terrel Christie, Brian Dorr, Luke Roy, Anita M. Kelly, Carole Engle, Paul Burr, Brian Davis, and Jonathan van Senten

Using bioenergetics and radar-derived bird abundance to assess the impact of a blackbird roost on seasonal sunflower damage, Bonnie A. Clark, Page E. Klug, Phillip M. Stepanian, and Jeffrey F. Kelly

Invasive Species Control and Resolution of Wildlife Damage Conflicts: A Framework for Chemical and Genetically Based Management Methods, Larry Clark, John Eisemann, John Godwin, Katherine Horak, Kevin Oh, Jeanette R. O'Hare, Antoinette J. Piaggio, Kim M. Pepin, and Emily W. Ruell

Serum chemistry values in wild black vultures in Mississippi, USA, Fred L. Cunningham, Sherman W. Jack, Amanda R. Deese, Eric R. Wengert, Kyle Van Why, Carla L. Huston, Scott Lemmons, and Richard B. Minnis

The Pocatello Supply Depot: A History and Update, Patrick A. Darrow

A comparison of cost and quality of three methods for estimating density for wild pig (Sus scrofa), Amy J. Davis, David A. Keiter, Elizabeth M. Kierepka, C. Slootmaker, Antoinette J. Piaggio, James C. Beasley, and K. M. Pepin

Repellent surface applications for pest birds, Shelagh T. DeLiberto, James C. Carlson, Hailey E. McLean, Caroline S. Olson, and Scott J. Werner

Frontal vehicle illumination via rear-facing lighting reduces potential for collisions with white-tailed deer, Travis L. Devault, Thomas W. Seamans, and Bradley Blackwell

Population increases of large birds in North America pose challenges for aviation safety, Richard A. Dolbeer

Testing a key assumption of using drones as frightening devices: Do birds perceive drones as risky?, Conor C. Egan, Bradley Blackwell, Esteban Fernández-Juricic, and Page E. Klug


Evaluating moose Alces alces population response to infestation level of winter ticks Dermacentor albipictus, Daniel D. Ellingwood, Peter J. Pekins, Henry Jones, and Anthony R. Musante

The changing triad of plague in Uganda: invasive black rats (Rattus rattus), indigenous small mammals, and their fleas, Russell E. Enscore, Nackson Babi, Gerald Amatre, Linda Atiku, Rebecca J. Eisen, Kim M. Pepin, Rommelle Vera-Tudela, Christopher Sexton, and Kenneth L. Gage

Review of Ospreys: The Revival of a Global Raptor, by Alan F. Poole. 2019., Lisa Fields and Brian E. Washburn

Factors and costs associated with removal of a newly established population of invasive wild pigs in Northern U.S., Justin W. Fischer, Nathan P. Snow, Bradley E. Wilson, Scott F. Beckerman, Christopher N. Jacques, Eric H. VanNatta, Shannon L. Kay, and Kurt C. Vercauteren

Spillover of SARS-CoV-2 into novel wild hosts in North America: A conceptual model for perpetuation of the pathogen, Alan B. Franklin and Sarah N. Bevins

Gulls as Sources of Environmental Contamination by Colistin-resistant Bacteria, Alan B. Franklin, Andrew M. Ramey, Kevin T. Bentler, Nicole L. Barrett, Loredana M. McCurdy, Christina A. Ahlstrom, Jonas Bonnedahl, Susan A. Shriner, and Jeffrey C. Chandler

Safety, Immunogenicity, and Efficacy of Intramuscular and Oral Delivery of ERA-G333 Recombinant Rabies Virus Vaccine to Big Brown Bats (Eptesicus fuscus), Amy T. Gilbert, Xianfu Wu, Felix R. Jackson, Richard Franka, Gary F. McCracken, and Charles E. Rupprecht

Effects of Wild Pig Disturbance on Forest Vegetation and Soils, Steven M. Gray, Gary J. Roloff, Daniel B. Kramer, Dwayne R. Etter, Kurt C. Vercauteren, and Robert A. Montgomery

Feasibility of a Successful Rat Eradication on Wake Atoll Following Initial Partial Failure: Potential Causes, Remedial Actions, and Remaining Knowledge Gaps, Chad Hanson, Kristen Rex, Peter J. Kappes, and Shane R. Siers