National Wildlife Research Center

NWRC Website

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The U.S. Department of Agriculture's National Wildlife Research Center (NWRC) is the federal institution devoted to resolving problems caused by the interaction of wild animals and society. The Center applies scientific expertise to the development of practical methods to resolve these problems and to maintain the quality of the environments shared with wildlife.

This site contains publications of the NWRC or its staff. Material prepared by employees of the US Government in the course of their official duties cannot be copyrighted.

"The Internet Center for Wildlife Damage Management does not necessarily concur, endorse or recommend all of the opinions and/or images contained within these documents. Should you use or rely on the information, techniques and materials provided by the ICWDM, you are responsible for determinations of efficacy and legality of such use and/or reliance, and you will at all times defend, indemnify and hold harmless the Board of Regents of the University of Nebraska, Utah State University, Cornell University, and Clemson University, their officers, employees and agents against all claims, demands, costs, and expenses arise from your use of or reliance on any information provided in the ICWDM and the Digital Commons. The ICWDM includes these sources for purposes of historical record, completeness and research."


Environmental effects are stronger than human effects on mammalian predator-prey relationships in arid Australian ecosystems, Benjamin L. Allen, Alana Fawcett, Alison Anker, Richard M. Engeman, Allan Lisle, and Luke K.-P. Leung


Determination of 20, 25-diazacholesterol in avian matrices by high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry, Benjamin G. Abbo, Laura E. Hulslander, and David A. Goldade

Reprint of: CYP1A protein expression and catalytic activity in double-crested cormorants experimentally exposed to deepwater Horizon Mississippi Canyon 252 oil, Courtney R. Alexander, Michael J. Hooper, Dave Cacela, Kim D. Smelker, Caleshia S. Calvin, Karen M. Dean, Steve J. Bursian, Fred L. Cunningham, Katie C. Hanson-Dorr, Katherine E. Horak, John P. Isanhart, Jane Link, Susan A. Shriner, and Céline A.J. Godard-Codding

Can we save large carnivores without losing large carnivore science?, Benjamin L. Allen, Lee R. Allen, Henrik Andrén, Guy Ballard, Luigi Boitani, Richard M. Engeman, Peter J. S. Fleming, Adam T. Ford, Peter M. Haswell, Rafal Kowalczyk, John D. C. Linnell, L. David Mech, and Daniel M. Parker

Wetland Bird Abundance and Safety Implications for Military Aircraft Operations, Kent Andersson, Craig A. Davis, Bradley F. Blackwell, and Jason R. Heinen

Frightening Devices, Michael L. Avery and Scott J. Werner

Novel and current rodenticides for pocket gopher Thomomys spp. management in vineyards: what works?, Roger A. Baldwin, Ryan Meinerz, and Gary W. Witmer

Panmixia and Limited Interspecific Introgression in Coyotes (Canis latrans) from West Virginia and Virginia, USA, Justin H. Bohling, Lauren L. Mastro, Jennifer R. Adams, Eric M. Gese, Sheldon F. Owen, and Lisette P. Waits

Using resident-based hazing programs to reduce human–coyote conflicts in urban environments, Mary Ann Bonnell and Stewart W. Breck

Evaluating lethal and nonlethal management options for urban coyotes, Stewart W. Breck, Sharon A. Poessel, and Mary Ann Bonnell

Reprint of: Overview of avian toxicity studies for the Deepwater Horizon Natural Resource Damage Assessment, S. J. Bursian, C. R. Alexander, D. Cacela, Fred L. Cunningham, K. M. Dean, B. S. Dorr, C. K. Ellis, Céline A.J. Godard-Codding, C. G. Guglielmo, K. C. Hanson-Dorr, K. E. Harr, K. Healy, Michael J. Hooper, K. Horak, John P. Isanhart, L. V. Kennedy, J. E. Link, I. Maggini, J. K. Moye, C. R. Perez, C. A. Pritsos, Susan A. Shriner, K. A. Trust, and P. L. Tuttle

Field-based evaluation of a male-specific (F+) RNA coliphage concentration method, J. C. Chandler; A. Pérez-Méndez; J. Paar, III; M. M. Doolittle; B. Bisha; and L. D. Goodridge

Field-based evaluation of a male-specific (F+) RNA coliphage concentration method, J.C. Chandler; A. Pérez-Méndez; J. Paar, III; M. M. Doolittle; B. Bisha; and L. D. Goodridge

A method for the improved detection of aerosolized influenza viruses and the male-specific (F+) RNA coliphage MS2, J. C. Chandler, J. W. Schaeffer, M. Davidson, S. L. Magzamen, A. Pérez-Méndez, S. J. Reynolds, L. D. Goodridge, J. Volckens, A. B. Franklin, S. A. Shriner, and B. Bisha

Effects of crop type and harvest on nest survival and productivity of dickcissels in semi-natural grasslands, Tara J. Conkling, Jerrold L. Belant, Travis L. DeVault, and James A. Martin

Development of methods for avian oil toxicity studies using the double crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus), Fred L. Cunningham, Karen Dean, Katie C. Hanson-Dorr, Kendal Harr, Kate Healy, Katherine Horak, Jane Link, Susan A. Shriner, Steve J. Bursian, and Brian Dorr

Impact of body condition on influenza A virus infection dynamics in mallards following a secondary exposure, Nicholas G. Dannemiller, Colleen T. Webb, Kenneth R. Wilson, Kevin T. Bentler, Nicole L. Mooers, Jeremy W. Ellis, J. Jeffrey Root, Alan B. Franklin, and Susan A. Shriner

Estimating population density for disease risk assessment: The importance of understanding the area of influence of traps using wild pigs as an example, Amy J. Davis, Bruce Leland, Michael Bodenchuk, Kurt C. VerCauteren, and Kim M. Pepin

Changes in white cell estimates and plasma chemistry measurements following oral or external dosing of double-crested cormorants, Phalacocorax auritus, with artificially weathered MC252 oil, Karen M. Dean, Steven J. Bursian, Dave Cacela, Michael W. Carney, Fred L. Cunningham, Brian Dorr, Katie C. Hanson-Dorr, Kate A. Healy, Katherine E. Horak, Jane E. Link, Ian Lipton, Andrew K. McFadden, Moira A. McKernan, and Kendal E. Harr

Testing of an oral dosing technique for double-crested cormorants, Phalacocorax auritus, laughing gulls, Leucophaeus atricilla, homing pigeons, Columba livia, and western sandpipers, Calidris mauri, with artificially weather MC252 oil, Karen M. Dean, Dave Cacela, Michael W. Carney, F. L. Cunningham, C. Ellis, A. R. Gerson, C. G. Guglielmo, Katie C. Hanson-Dorr, K. E. Harr, Katherine A. Healy, Katherine Horak, John P. Isanhart, L. V. Kennedy, J. E. Link, I. Lipton, Andrew K. McFadden, J. K. Moye, C. R. Perez, C. A. Pritsos, Karen L. Pritsos, Thivanka Muthumalage, S. A. Shriner, and S. J. Bursian

Can experience reduce collisions between birds and vehicles?, T. L. DeVault, T. W. Seamans, Bradley F. Blackwell, S. L. Lima, M. A. Martinez, and E. Fernandez-Juricic

Scavenger removal of bird carcasses at simulated wind turbines: Does carcass type matter?, Travis L. DeVault, Thomas W. Seamans, Kimberly E. Linnell, Dale W. Sparks, and James C. Beasley

The Rise of Double-Crested Cormorants, Brian S. Dorr and Dave Fielder

Double-Crested Cormorants: Too Much of a Good Thing?, Brian S. Dorr and David G. Fielder

Using pentosidine and hydroxyproline to predict age and sex in an avian species, Brian S. Dorr, Randal S. Stahl, Katie C. Hanson-Dorr, and Carol A. Furcolow

Control of invasive rats on islands and priorities for future action, Quiterie Duron, Aaron B. Shiels, and Eric Vidal

Use of fecal volatile organic compound analysis to discriminate between nonvaccinated and BCG-Vaccinated cattle prior to and after Mycobacterium bovis challenge, Christine K. Ellis, Somchai Rice, Devin Maurer, Randal Stahl, W. Ray Waters, Mitchell V. Palmer, Pauline Nol, Jack C. Rhyan, Kurt C. VerCauteren, and Jacek A. Koziel

Inventory of wildlife use of mortality pits as feeding sites: implications of pathogen exposure, Jeremy W. Ellis, Susan A. Shriner, Hailey E. McLean, Lauren Petersen, and J. Jeffrey Root

Management and modeling approaches for controlling raccoon rabies: The road to elimination, Stacey A. Elmore, Richard B. Chipman, Dennis Slate, Kathryn P. Huyvaert, Kurt C. VerCauteren, and Amy T. Gilbert

Study design concepts for inferring functional roles of mammalian top predators, Richard M. Engeman, Lee R. Allen, and Benjamin L. Allen

Prevalence of feral swine disturbance at important archaeological sites over a large landscape in Florida, Richard M. Engeman, Joseph S. Meyer, and John B. Allen

Addressing the Gender Gap in Distinguished Speakers at Professional Ecology Conferences, Cooper M. Farr, Sara P. Bombaci, Travis Gallo, Anna M. Mangan, Hannah L. Riedl, Lani T. Stinson, Kate Wilkins, Drew E. Bennett, Theresa Nogeire-McRae, and Liba Pejchar

Space use and social ecology of coyotes (Canis latrans) in a high-elevation ecosystem: relative stability in a changing environment, Suzanne J. Gifford, Eric M. Gese, and Robert R. Parmenter

Movement of Hypophthalmichthys DNA in the Illinois River Watershed by the Double-Crested Cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus), Michael P. Guilfoyle, Heather L. Farrington, Richard F. Lance, Katie C. Hanson-Dorr, Brian S. Dorr, and Richard A. Fischer

Weathered MC252 crude oil-induced anemia and abnormal erythroid morphology in double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) with light microscopic and ultrastructural description of Heinz bodies, K. E. Harr, Fred L. Cunningham, Chris A. Pritsos, Karen L. Pritsos, Thivanka Muthumalage, Brian S. Dorr, Katherine E. Horak, Katie C. Hanson-Dorr, Karen M. Dean, Dave Cacela, Andrew K. McFadden, Jane E. Link, Katherine A. Healy, Pete Tuttle, and Steven J. Bursian

Organ weights and histopathology of double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) dosed orally or dermally with artificially weathered Mississippi Canyon 252 crude oil, K. E. Harr, Drury R. Reavill, Steven J. Bursian, Dave Cacela, Fred L. Cunningham, Karen M. Dean, Brian S. Dorr, Katie C. Hanson-Dorr, Kate Healy, Katherine Horak, Jane E. Link, Susan A. Shriner, and Robert E. Schmidt

Dermal exposure to weathered MC252 crude oil results in echocardiographically identifiable systolic myocardial dysfunction in double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus), K. E. Harr, M. Rishniw, T. L. Rupp, D. Cacela, K. M. Dean, B. S. Dorr, K. C. Hanson-Dorr, K. Healy, K. Horak, J. E. Link, D. Reavill, S. J. Bursian, and Fred L. Cunningham

Fine-scale assessment of home ranges and activity patterns for resident black vultures (Coragyps atratus) and turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), Amanda E. Holland, Michael E. Byrne, A. Lawrence Bryan, Travis L. DeVault, Olin E. Rhodes, and James C. Beasley

Picky eaters are rare: DNA-based blood meal analysis of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) species from the United States, Matthew W. Hopken, Bonnie M. Ryan, Kathryn P. Huyvaert, and Antoinette J. Piaggio

Toxic effects of orally ingested oil from the Deepwater Horizon spill on laughing gulls, Katherine E. Horak, Steven J. Bursian, C. K. Ellis, K. M. Dean, J. E. Link, Katie C. Hanson-Dorr, F. L. Cunningham, K. E. Harr, C. A. Pritsos, Karen L. Pritsos, Katherine A. Healy, Dave Cacela, and S. A. Shriner

Bird use of grain fields and implications for habitat management at airports, Raymond B. Iglay, Bruce N. Buckingham, Thomas W. Seamans, James A. Martin, Bradley F. Blackwell, Jerrold L. Belant, and Travis L. DeVault

An evaluation of the use of pentosidine as a biomarker for ageing turtles, John B. Iverson, Randal S. Stahl, Carol Furcolow, and Fred Kraus

Quantifying drivers of wild pig movement across multiple spatial and temporal scales, Shannon L. Kay, Justin W. Fischer, Andrew J. Monaghan, James C. Beasley, Raoul Boughton, Tyler A. Campbell, Susan M. Cooper, Stephen S. Ditchkoff, Steven B. Hartley, John C. Kilgo, Samantha M. Wisely, A. Christy Wyckoff, Kurt C. VerCauteren, and Kim M. Pepin

Development of known-fate survival monitoring techniques for juvenile wild pigs (Sus scrofa), David A. Keiter, John C. Kilgo, Mark A. Vukovich, Fred L. Cunningham, and James C. Beasley

Temporal Development of Gut Microbiota in Triclocarban Exposed Pregnant and Neonatal Rats, Rebekah C. Kennedy, Russell R. Fling, Michael S. Robeson, Arnold M. Saxton, Robert L. Donnell, John L. Darcy, David A. Bemis, Jiang Liu, Ling Zhao, and Jiangang CHen

Winter and Summer Home Ranges of American White Pelicans (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos) Captured at Loafing Sites in the Southeastern United States, D. Tommy King, Justin Fischer, Bronson K. Strickland, W. David Walter, Fred L. Cunningham, and Guiwang Wang

Advances and Environmental Conditions of Spring Migration Phenology of American White Pelicans, D. Tommy King, Guiming Wang, Zhiqiang Yang, and Justin W. Fischer

Influence of free water availability on a desert carnivore and herbivore, Bryan M. Kluever, Eric B. Gese, and Steven J. Dempsey

Evaluating the influence of water developments on the demography and spatial ecology of a rare, desert-adapted carnivore: the kit fox (Vulpes macrotis), Bryan M. Kluever and Eric M. Gese

The Future of Blackbird Management Research, Page E. Klug

An assessment of radiative heating as a thermal treatment for invasive snakes in cargo, Fred Kraus, Randal Stahl, and William Pitt

Reoccurrence of Avian Influenza A(H5N2) Virus Clade in Wild Birds, Alaska, USA, 2016, Dong-Hun Lee, Mia K. Torchetti, Mary Lea Killian, Thomas J. DeLiberto, and David E. Swayne

Strategies for Evading Blackbird Damage, George Linz and Page E. Klug

History of Regulations, Policy, and Research Related to Conflicts between Blackbirds and People, George M. Linz, Michael L. Avery, and Richard A. Dolbeer

Ecology and Management of Red-Winged Blackbirds, George M. Linz, Page E. Klug, and Richard A. Dolbeer

The roles of habitat and intraguild predation by coyotes on the spatial dynamics of kit foxes, Robert C. Lonsinger, Eric M. Gese, Larissa L. Bailey, and Lisette P. Waits

Uncovering behavioural states from animal activity and site fidelity patterns, Peter J. Mahoney and Julie K. Young

Bird use of organic apple orchards: Frugivory, pest control and implications for production, Anna M. Mangan, Liba Pejchar, and Scott J. Werner

US feral swine were exposed to both avian and swine influenza A viruses, Brigitte E. Martin, Hailiang Sun, Margaret Carrel, Fred L. Cunningham, John A. Baroch, Katie C. Hanson-Dorr, Sean G. Young, Brandon Schmit, Jacqueline M. Nolting, Kyoung-Jin Yoon, Mark W. Lutman, Kerri Pedersen, Kelly Lager, Andrew S. Bowman, Richard D. Slemons, David R. Smith, Thomas J. Deliberto, and Xiu-Feng Wan

Diversity and phylogenetic relationships among Bartonella strains from Thai bats, Clifton D. McKee, Michael Y. Kosoy, Ying Bai, Lynn M. Osikowicz, Richard Franka, Amy T. Gilbert, Sumalee Boonmar, Charles E. Rupprecht, and Leonard Peruski

Studies of wolf x coyote hybridization via artificial insemination, L. David Mech, Cheryl S. Asa, Margaret Callahan, Bruce W. Christensen, Fran Smith, and Julie K. Young

Cross-species transmission potential between wild pigs, livestock, poultry, wildlife, and humans: implications for disease risk management in North America, Ryan S. Miller, Steven J. Sweeney, Chris Slootmaker, Daniel A. Grear, Paul A. Di Salvo, Deborah Kiser, and Stephanie A. Shwiff

Towards Canine Rabies Elimination in Cebu, Philippines: Assessment of Health Economic Data, L. M. Miranda, M. E. Miranda, B. Hatch, R. Deray, S. Shwiff, M. C. Roces, and C. E. Rupprecht

Rabies Virus Antibodies from Oral Vaccination as a Correlate of Protection against Lethal Infection in Wildlife, Susan M. Moore, Amy Gilbert, Ad Vos, Conrad M. Freuling, Christine K. Ellis, Jeannette Kliemt, and Thomas Müller

Demographic and temporal variations in immunity and condition of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from the southern Beaufort Sea, Lorin A. Neuman-Lee, Patricia A. Terletzky, Todd C. Atwood, Eric M. Gese, Geoffrey D. Smith, Sydney Greenfield, John Pettit, and Susannah S. French

Functional visual sensitivity to ultraviolet wavelengths in the Pileated Woodpecker (Dryocopus pileatus), and its influence on foraging substrate selection, Sean T. O'Daniels, Dylan C. Kesler, Jeanne D. Mihail, Elisabeth B. Webb, and Scott J. Werner

Evidence of leptospirosis in the kidneys and serum of feral swine (Sus scrofa) in the United States, K. Pedersen, T. D. Anderson, S. N. Bevins, K. L. Pabilonia, P. N. Whitley, D. R. Virchow, and T. Gidlewski

Predicting spatial spread of rabies in skunk populations using surveillance data reported by the public, Kim M. Pepin, Amy J. Davis, Daniel G. Streicker, Justin W. Fischer, Kurt C. VerCauteren, and Amy T. Gilbert

Comment on: ‘Blood does not buy goodwill: allowing culling increases poaching of a large carnivore’, Kim M. Pepin, Shannon L. Kay, and Amy J. Davis

Comment on: ‘Blood does not buy goodwill: allowing culling increases poaching of a large carnivore’, Kim M. Pepin, Shannon L. Kay, and Amy J. Davis

Inferring infection hazard in wildlife populations by linking data across individual and population scales, Kim M. Pepin, Shannon L. Kay, Ben D. Golas, Susan S. Shriner, Amy T. Gilbert, Ryan S. Miller, Andrea L. Graham, Steven Riley, Paul C. Cross, Michael D. Samuel, Mevin B. Hooten, Jennifer A. Hoeting, James O. Lloyd-Smith, Colleen T. Webb, and Michael G. Buhnerkempe

Using risk prediction models and species sensitivity maps for large-scale identification of infrastructure-related wildlife protection areas: The case of bird electrocution, Juan Manuel Pérez-García, Travis L. DeVault, Francisco Botella, and José Antonio Sánchez-Zapata

Genetic demography at the leading edge of the distribution of a rabies virus vector, Antoinette J. Piaggio, Amy L. Russell, Ignacio A. Osorio, Alejandro Jiménez Ramírez, Justin W. Fischer, Jennifer L. Neuwald, Annie E. Tibbels, Luis Lecuona, and Gary F. McCracken

Is It Time for Synthetic Biodiversity Conservation?, Antoinette J. Piaggio, Gernot Segelbacher, Philip J. Seddon, Luke Alphey, Elizabeth L. Bennett, Robert H. Carlson, Robert M. Friedman, Dona Kanavy, Ryan Phelan, Kent H. Redford, Marina Rosales, Lydia Slobodian, and Keith Wheeler

Dietary intake of Deepwater Horizon oil-injected live food fish by doublecrested cormorants resulted in oxidative stress, Karen L. Pritsos, Cristina R. Perez, Thivanka Muthumalage, Karen M. Dean, Dave Cacela, K. C. Hanson-Dorr, Fred L. Cunningham, S. J. Bursian, Jane E. Link, Susan A. Shriner, Katherine Horak, and C. A. Pritsos

Differential impacts of wildfire on the population dynamics of an old-forest species, Jeremy T. Rockweit, Alan B. Franklin, and Peter C. Carlson

Transmission of H6N2 wild bird-origin influenza A virus among multiple bird species in a stacked-cage setting, J. Jeffrey Root, Susan A. Shriner, Jeremy W. Ellis, Kaci K. VanDalen, and Alan B. Franklin

Low viral doses are sufficient to infect cottontail rabbits with avian influenza A virus, J. Jeffrey Root, Susan A. Shriner, Jeremy W. Ellis, Kaci K. VanDalen, and Heather J. Sullivan

Clinostomum album n. sp. and Clinostomum marginatum (Rudolphi, 1819), parasites of the great egret Ardea alba L. from Mississippi, USA, Thomas G. Rosser, Neely R. Alberson, Ethan T. Woodyard, Fred L. Cunningham, Linda M. Pote, and Matt J. Griffin

Investigation of techniques to measure cortisol and testosterone concentrations in coyote hair, Christopher J. Schell, Julie K. Young, Elizabeth V. Lonsdorf, Jill M. Mateo, and Rachel M. Santymire

Using species distribution models to define nesting habitat of the eastern metapopulation of double-crested cormorants, Kate L. Sheehan, Samuel T. Esswein, Brian S. Dorr, Greg K. Yarrow, and Ron J. Johnson

The influence of geographical location, host maturity and sex on intestinal helminth communities of the double-crested cormorant Phalacrocorax auritus from the eastern United States, K. L. Sheehan, K. C. Hanson-Dorr, Brian S. Dorr, G. K. Yarrow, and R. J. Johnson

Sudden appearance and population outbreak of Eunica monima (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) on Desecheo Island, Puerto Rico, Aaron B. Shiels, William P. Haines, Kirsty J. Swinnerton, Susan Silander, Cielo Figuerola-Hernández, David Will, Juan G. García-Cancel, and Christian W. Torres-Santana

Shifts in an invasive rodent community favoring Black rats (Rattus rattus) following restoration of native forest, Aaron B. Shiels, Arthur Medeiros, and Erica I. von Allmen

The Economic Impact of Blackbird Damage to Crops, Stephanie A. Shwiff, Karina L. Ernest, Samantha L. Degroot, Aaron M. Anderson, and Steven S. Shwiff

Ontogenetic and ecological variation in invasion risk of Brown Treesnakes (Boiga irregularis) on Guam, Shane R. Siers, Julie A. Savidge, and Robert N. Reed

Optimization of human, animal, and environmental health by using the One Health approach, Jonathan M. Sleeman, Thomas DeLiberto, and Natalie Nguyen

Different prey resources suggest little competition between non-native frogs and insectivorous birds despite isotopic niche overlap, Robyn L. Smith, Karen H. Beard, and Aaron B. Shiels

Comparison of a Micro-Neutralization Test with the Rapid Fluorescent Focus Inhibition Test for Measuring Rabies Virus Neutralizing Antibodies, Todd G. Smith and Amy T. Gilbert

Development of Toxic Bait to Control Invasive Wild Pigs and Reduce Damage, Nathan P. Snow, Justin A. Foster, John C. Kinsey, Simon T. Humphrys, Linton D. Staples, David G. Hewitt, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

Strength Testing of Raccoons and Invasive Wild Pigs for a Species-Specific Bait Station, Nathan P. Snow, Michael J. Lavelle, Joseph M. Halseth, Chad R. Blass, Justin A. Foster, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

Strength Testing of Raccoons and Invasive Wild Pigs for a Species-Specific Bait Station, Nathan P. Snow, Michael J. Lavelle, Joseph M. Halseth, Chad R. Blass, Justin A. Foster, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

Adaptive use of nonlethal strategies for minimizing wolf–sheep conflict in Idaho, Suzanne A. Stone, Stewart W. Breck, Jesse Timberlake, Peter M. Haswell, Fernando Najera, Brian S. Bean, and Daniel J. Thornhill

Anthropogenic factors predict movement of an invasive species, Michael A. Tabak, Antoinette J. Piaggio, Ryan S. Miller, Rick A. Sweitzer, and Holly B. Ernest

Greater Sage-Grouse Nest Survival in Northwestern Wyoming, Jimmy D. Taylor, R. Douglas Holt, Elizabeth K. Orning, and Julie K. Young

Ecological Potential for Rabies Virus Transmission via Scavenging of Dead Bats by Mesocarnivores, Tad C. Theimer, Annie C. Dyer, Brian W. Keeley, Amy T. Gilbert, and David L. Bergman

Den use and heterothermy during winter in free-living, suburban striped skunks, Tad C. Theimer, Cory T. Williams, Shylo R. Johnson, Amy T. Gilbert, David L. Bergman, and C. Loren Buck

The impact of poverty on dog ownership and access to canine rabies vaccination: results from a knowledge, attitudes and practices survey, Uganda 2013, Ryan M. Wallace, Jason Mehal, Yoshinori Nakazawa, Sergio Recuenco, Barnabas Bakamutumaho, Modupe Osinubi, Victor Tugumizemu, Jesse D. Blanton, Amy Gilbert, and Joseph Wamala

Impact locations and damage to civil and military rotary-wing aircraft from wildlife strikes, Brian E. Washburn, Paul Cisar, and Travis L. DeVault

Chemical Repellents, Scott J. Werner and Michael L. Avery