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During the last fifty years, there have been rising concerns about human impacts on the environment: biodiversity loss, over-exploitation of species, habitat degradation, global warming, pollution, poverty, and the increasing gap in global development. The outcomes of these environmental problems and impacts on the human condition are uncertain. Previously, theoretical literature integrating environment and development issues had been scarce. However, in recent decades, new approaches in human dimensions research have emerged which seek to understand the major causes of change in the environment, and how these causes vary over time, across space, and between social groups and economic sectors. Environmental problems have entered the realm of urgency and are gaining attention in public policy, prime-time media, and everyday conversations.