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Job satisfaction of employees plays a crucial role in determining the general productivity of workers in any organization. The general opinion was that job satisfaction and productivity of librarians in public university libraries in Nigeria were low and a cause for concern. This study investigated the relationship between job satisfaction and productivity of librarians in Nigerian public universities. A correlational survey research design was adopted. The study population consisted of 1,254 librarians in public university libraries in Nigeria, from which 923 were selected using simple random sampling. The research instrument used was a self-developed questionnaire. The questionnaire validation was subjected to the scrutiny experts in the areas of the variables studied; it gave a reliability coefficient of 0.78 for Job Satisfaction; and 0.94 for Productivity. A response rate of 67.2% was achieved. Data were analysed using descriptive (percentage, mean, average mean and standard deviation) and inferential (Pearson Product Moment Correlation) statistics. The study revealed a significant relationship between job satisfaction and productivity (r = 0.025, P < 0.05) of librarians in public university libraries in Nigeria. The study concluded that contrary to general belief, job satisfaction and productivity levels of librarians in university libraries were high. It is recommended that university library management should continue to promote values such as improved employee recognition, good leadership style and improved human capital development programmes that would increase job satisfaction and productivity of its workforce.