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The study focused on impact of electronic surveillance systems on book theft and mutilation in Francis Suleimanu Idachaba Library, University of Agriculture, Makurdi. In this study, electronic surveillance is the use of modern technological security devices to detect book theft and mutilation in Francis Suleimanu Idachaba Library, University of Agriculture, Makurdi. Descriptive survey design was used as design of the study. The population of the study was 300 library users drawn from the nine (9) colleges in University of Agriculture, Makurdi. Sample size for this study was made up of entire population. Research instruments was Questionnaire and interviewed guide developed by researchers titled “Questionnaire on the Impact of Electronic Surveillance Systems on Book Theft and Mutilation in Francis Sulemanu Idachaba Library (QIESSBTMFSIL). A response rate of 300 (100%) was recorded. Data collected were analyzed using frequency counts, percentages (%), mean () and standard deviation (SD). The findings revealed that (34.0%) use the library. It also showed that male (87.05%) undergraduate use the library more than female undergraduate once in two weeks (26.3%). The Grand mean of (=2.69) revealed that insufficiency of library materials, selfishness of some library users and absent mindedness of library staff were the major reasons for theft and mutilation in Francis Sulemanu Idachaba Library. While the Grand mean of (= 23.26) revealed numbers and duration of loans, high cost of photocopying, insufficient number of recommended textbooks and inadequacy of library materials to users as the major factors that cause theft and mutilation in the Library. The Grand mean of (= 13.20) showed that the suggested surveillance systems were appropriate. The Grand mean of (= 10.42) revealed inadequate funding of library; poor power supply and high cost of installing electronic surveillance affect the effectiveness of electronic surveillance in Francis Sulemanu Idachaba Library. The strategies for addressing constraints facing theft and mutilation (=15.72) were appropriate. It was recommended among others that there should be policy on theft and vandalism, detective barcode machines should be provided; installation and maintenance of electronic surveillance system, provision of adequate resources and photocopying services to check book theft and mutilation.