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Applying the lens of constructivism and inquiry-based learning, this study investigated why libraries remain underdeveloped in Nigerian schools, and the way forward. The study was motivated by the importance accorded to school libraries, being one of the most important educational services that could be used to achieve good standard education in Nigeria. The methodological approach adopted for this study was mixed methods. The study’s population comprised “school librarians”, principals, and science teachers in public senior secondary schools as well as major stakeholders in education connected with the provision, management and utilization of library resources for teaching science subjects. The instruments of data collection were questionnaires, interviews, and observation. Quantitative data were analysed using the SPSS, while qualitative data were transcribed and analysed thematically. The state of school libraries was poor and the resource most frequently available in school libraries for teaching science was textbooks. Besides, the findings revealed that the majority of the library staff did not possess a librarianship qualification, and the majority of teachers adopted a teacher-centred approach. The study underscores the continued regarding textbooks as part of library resources for science, and offers some recommendations that could position school libraries for realising the government’s vision of economic growth.