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The paper aims to explore the fundamental concepts of structuralism and post-structuralism as philosophical approaches, literary differences between structuralism and post-structuralism, and the implication of these two approaches in Library and Information Science (LIS). Several published literature was consulted to achieve the study objectives. It was found that structuralism and post-structuralism have a significant impact on the functioning of modern libraries and, therefore, their importance should be given consideration. Structuralism and post-structuralism as philosophical approaches provide insights into research and development in LIS. The study gives numerous recommendations for LIS professionals to adopt these two philosophical approaches in modern library practices.