Department of Management


Date of this Version



Published in Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology 81 (2008), pp. 71–82; doi: 10.1348/096317907X202482 Copyright © 2008 The British Psychological Society Used by permission.


In a test of hypotheses derived from the integration of principles of path-goal theory (House, 1996) and transformational leadership theory (Bass, 1985), data collected from 179 high school teachers and their principals were examined with hierarchical regression analysis. Augmentation analysis indicated that transactional leadership had a stronger role in explaining unique criterion variance beyond the contribution of transformational leadership, than did transformational leadership relative to transactional leadership. In addition, both the transactional and transformational leadership had a negative interactive relationship for predicting the outcome of performance, such that leader vision and leader intellectual stimulation were more positively correlated with employee performance when leader use of contingent reward was low. These augmentation effects, in conjunction with the findings of negative moderation, suggest that transactional leadership may have greater potential predictive value than previously assumed.