Mechanical & Materials Engineering, Department of


Document Type


Date of this Version



Bioactive Materials 38 (2024) 154–168.


Open access.


Effective therapies are urgently needed to stabilize patients with marginally compressible junctional hemorrhage long enough to get them to the hospital alive. Herein, we report injectable and rapidly expandable cryogels consisting of polyacrylamide and thrombin (AT cryogels) created by cryo-polymerization for the efficient management of lethal junctional hemorrhage in swine. The produced cryogels have small pore sizes and highly interconnected porous architecture with robust mechanical strength. The cryogels exhibit rapid shape memory properties and prove to be resilient against fatigue. These cryogels also show high water/blood absorption capacity, fast blood clotting effect, and enhanced adhesion of red blood cells and platelets in vitro. Further, in vivo, hemostatic efficacy tests in a lethal swine junctional hemorrhage model suggest that treatment with AT cryogels, especially AT-2 cryogels, achieves the least blood loss and the highest survival rate (100 %) compared to currently employed products such as XStat® and combat gauze. The high hemostatic performance of the cryogels may be attributed to highly interconnected porous architecture with small pore size and the use of thrombin as a pro-coagulant agent. Collectively, injectable and rapidly expandable thrombin-decorated polyacrylamide-based cryogels show significant promise as hemostatic material, offering effective management of marginally compressible junctional hemorrhages in prehospital settings.