National Aeronautics and Space Administration


Date of this Version



Surface & Coatings Technology 285 (2016) 77–86


U.S. Government Work


Air plasma spray (APS) and plasma-spray-physical vapor deposition (PS-PVD) yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) thermal barrier coatings (TBC), ~80–100 μm thick, were produced on a commercial Ti2AlC MAX phase compound. They were oxidized in interrupted furnace tests for 500 h each, at five successive temperatures from 1100°–1300 °C. The APS coating survived 2400 accumulated hours, failing catastrophically after 500 h at 1300°C. Porosity, large cracks, sintering, and high monoclinic YSZ phase contents were seen as primary degradation factors. The PS-PVD coating remained completely intact over 2500 total hours (65 cycles) including 500 h at 1300 °C, exhibiting only fine porosity and microcracking, with less monoclinic. These Ti2AlC systems achieved aminimumα-Al2O3 scale thickness of 29 and 35 μm, respectively, as compared to ~6±2 μmon average at failure for conventional bond coats on superalloys. Accordingly, times predicted from thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) of oxidation kinetics project an improvement factor of ~25–50× for the time to achieve these scale thicknesses at a given temperature. Extreme oxidative TBC durability is achieved because the thermal expansion coefficient of Ti2AlC is only slightly different than those for α-Al2O3 and YSZ. The strain energy term driving scale and TBC failure is therefore believed to be fundamentally diminished fromthe large compressive stress produced by higher expansion superalloys.