Natural Resources, School of


Date of this Version



Evolution, (2005) 59(8): 1,851–1,854.


Copyright © 2005, Society for the Study of Evolution. Used by permission.


Comparative studies provide correlational evidence of morphological adaptations for high locomotor performance, such as the classical indicators of cursoriality in mammals, long limbs and high metatarsal/femur ratios. More recently, enlarged femoral condyles have been suggested as an adaptation for high endurance running in the genus Homo. Asymmetry of locomotor appendages should adversely affect locomotor abilities, but this has not been studied in a rigorous evolutionary context. We used experimental evolution to test for morphological adaptations associated with high voluntary wheel running in selectively bred lines of mice. Surprisingly, the classical indicators of cursoriality had not evolved in concert with high activity levels. Instead, high runners had larger femoral condyles and reduced directional asymmetry of hindlimb bones. We hypothesize that greater limb symmetry and larger femoral heads are general adaptations associated with sustained, high-speed locomotion.