Natural Resources, School of


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Prepared by the Center for Archaeological Research at the University of Texas at San Antonio, Texas A & M University, and the Arkansas Archeological Survey

Final Report Submitted to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Southwestern Division. Study Unit 3 of the Southwestern Division Archeological Overview

Contract DACW63-84-C-0149



The South Texas area, Region 3 of the Southwestern Division, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, is synthesized from archeological and bioarcheological perspectives. Three distinct geographic units within Region 3 are treated in detail: Central Texas Plateau Prairie, South Texas Plains, and Lower Pecos Canyonlands. More than 11,000 years of human adaptation are chronicled for this area, stretching from the Gulf of Mexico to the Rio Grande along the border with northeastern Mexico. Particular attention is devoted to a consideration of the region's prehistoric record; significant problems and data gaps are outlined. For the first time, a compilation has been done of the bioarcheological resources of this region, providing analysis and initial interpretation of the human osteological remains of its early inhabitants. The Historic era has also been summarized, particularly the Native American populations and the record of the AngloEuropean immigrants who replaced them. To help characterize the prehistoric human utilization of the region, a series of adaptation types were developed and can be tested by future research.


Introduction, by Thomas R. Hester

Environmental Setting, by Stephen L. Black

Central Texas Plateau Prairie, by Stephen L. Black

South Texas Plains, by Stephen L. Black

Lower Pecos Canyonlands, by Leland C. Bement

Historic Native American Populations, by Thomas R. Hester

Historic Anglo-European Exploration and Colonization, by Anne A . Fox

Bioarcheology of the Region 3 Study Area, by D. Gentry Steele and Ben W. Olive

An Archeological Synthesis, by Thomas R. Hester

Bioarcheological Synthesis, by Karl J. Reinhard, Ben W. Olive, and D. Gentry Steele

The Interaction of Archeology and Bioarcheology: Some Observations, by Thomas R. Hester and D. Gentry Steele

References Cited