Nutrition and Health Sciences, Department of


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Warpechowski, J.; Leszczyńska, P.; Juchnicka, D.; Olichwier, A.; Szczerbiński, Ł.; Krętowski, A.J. Assessment of the Immune Response in Patients with Insulin Resistance, Obesity, and Diabetes to COVID-19 Vaccination. Vaccines 2023, 11, 1203. https://


Open access.


The SARS-CoV-19 pandemic overwhelmed multiple healthcare systems across the world. Patients with underlying medical conditions such as obesity or diabetes were particularly vulnerable, had more severe symptoms, and were more frequently hospitalized. To date, there have been many studies on the severity of SARS-CoV-2 in patients with metabolic disorders, but data on the efficiency of vaccines against COVID-19 are still limited. This paper aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines in individuals with diabetes, insulin resistance, and obesity. A comparison is made between the immune response after vaccination in patients with and without metabolic comorbidities. Additionally, an attempt is made to highlight the mechanisms of immune stimulation affected by SARS-CoV-2 vaccines and how metabolic comorbidities modulate these mechanisms. The focus is on the most common COVID-19 vaccines, which include mRNA vaccines such as Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna, as well as viral vector vaccines such as AstraZeneca and Johnson & Johnson. Furthermore, an effort is made to clarify how the functional differences between these vaccines may impact the response in individuals with metabolic disorders, drawing from available experimental data. This review summarizes the current knowledge regarding the post-vaccination response to COVID-19 in the context of metabolic comorbidities such as diabetes, insulin resistance, and obesity.