Nutrition and Health Sciences, Department of


Date of this Version


Document Type



Steiner, Kenzie J. Multilingual Zambia - Language Issues in Primary/Secondary Schools of the Eastern and Southern Provinces. 2023.


Copyright © 2023 Kenzie Steiner


Introduction: Zambia is a multilingual country that uses 8 different languages for instruction including English and 7 other indigenous languages.

Methods: Survey research conducted between May-June 2022 on 6-7th graders within 9 Zambian schools. Classroom observations made and teachers interviewed.

Results: In Eastern and Southern Provinces, Zambian teachers speak an average of 5 languages while students speak an average of 2. Both teachers and students say English remains the most important language followed by first languages.

Conclusion: Continued research on language-in-education policies and impacts on student performance must be conducted if “One Zambia, One Nation” is meant to promote all indigenous peoples over the English colonial past.