Nutrition and Health Sciences, Department of


Date of this Version


Document Type



Copyright © 2023 Cole Murphy


Although malnutrition rates remain high in Zambia, there are limited data for primary school children on factors that contribute to poor growth. This study was designed to examine one factor rarely considered in research about stunting, i.e., energy expenditure among primary school children and its contribution to short stature. § §Historically, stunting has been a major public health issue in much of sub-Saharan Africa and continues to yield severe consequences for physical and mental development throughout the lifespan (Iversen et al., 2022). §Both household food insecurity and dietary diversity are significantly associated with stunting in Sub-Saharan Africa (Gassara et al., 2021) §According to the Zambia Demographic and Health survey, 45% of children under 5 years old are stunted (Yamauchi et al., 2022). §In Zambia, children’s nutritional intake is minimal, and the dietary intake is monotonous, with about 76% of calories coming from carbohydrates (Yamauchi et al., 2022). §Low consumption of fat, protein, and micronutrients leads to numerous nutrition deficiencies and health problems. §Calcium intake and physical activity, especially during the late childhood, which is a critical period for bone accretion, is the grade A recommendation to promote maximal bone health (Zemel et al., 2016) §Adjusting for body mass, total energy expenditure peaks during the first 10 years of life (Gibbons 2022), consequently, optimizing nutritional intake is important. §Energy expenditure among Zambians is high due to such factors as lack of transportation, large-sized towns, and the need to walk to market to acquire food for each meal. §Malnutrition must be a critical research focus in Africa; however, examining the impact that energy expenditure plays is often overlooked in the research Note: PwerPoint slides (150 MB) attached below.

Murphy--Zambia Poster Shell.pptx (158271 kB)
ppt -- 1 slide (158 MB)