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The parasite fauna of two species of fat-tailed mouse opossums from northwestern Argentina is herein presented. Five species of helminths were found, i.e., Pterygodermatites kozeki, Hoineffia simplispicula, Oligacanthorhynchus sp., and a new species of tapeworm, Mathevotaenia sanmartini n. sp. (Cyclophyllidea: Anoplocephalidae). The new species is characterized by a calyciform scolex, relatively few testes (32), and a long cirrus sac; it occurs in fat-tailed mouse opossums at localities above 4,000 m. Those characters make it different from 6 species known to occur in marsupials from the New World, and from other species occurring in armadillos and bats. Didelphoxyuris thylamisis, H. simplicispicula, and Oligacanthorhynchus sp. appear to occur in marmosas from the Yungas region. In contrast, both P. kozeki and M. sanmartini n. sp. appear to occur exclusively in the Puna.