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Interband and core-level transitions and plasmon resonance in the high-temperature oxide superconductor YBa2Cu3O7-x were studied by transmission electron-energy-loss spectroscopy using an electron microprobe ∼5-10 Å in size. Both single-crystal and polycrystalline ceramic samples have been examined. No significant change in electronic structure was observed at the grain boundaries. A 13.5-eV interband-transition peak was found to be sensitive to damages created by ion-beam bombardment.