Date of this Version
Chapter in 2015 Crop Production Clinic Proceedings, University of Nebraska-Lincoln Extension, Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources, pp. 144-146.
This year’s title of “weather variability and disease management strategies” was chosen because we need to remember how weather conditions this year have impacted crop productivity and disease development. This will enable us to look forward and develop better management decisions for future growing seasons. Agricultural production is dependent on many climatic factors such as rain, humidity, temperature, and sunlight. These climate conditions have direct effects on yield as well as other indirect effects. One specific indirect effect of extreme weather events is increased pressure from pathogens and pests. Plant pathogens are commonly favored by very specific, and sometimes extreme, weather conditions. Pathogens take advantage of these conditions to infect, reproduce, and cause disease in crops that can lead to economic losses, ultimately in the loss of yield quality or quantity. Scientific projections indicate that climate change will continue to have major impacts on crops across the country and the world. It is therefore not surprising that this year the United Nations Summit in New York on September 23 focused on climate change in agriculture with discussions on Global Alliance for Climate-Smart Agriculture. Nebraska is known for its leadership in agricultural production and one germane concern is how we will be able to utilize the available climate data in a timely fashion to our advantage in protecting our crops from the negative impacts of climate change and pathogens. We need to act in a way that can leverage climate change to our advantage, where possible. It is important to monitor soil moisture and irrigation. Late planting and dryer than normal conditions in 2014 resulted in irrigation late into the season in some locations, which will unfortunately result in reduced profits for such farms. Temperature is also an important factor. When conditions are warmer, crops tend to grow faster and the time for seed maturity reduces. However, warmer conditions have the potential to reduce yield and, in addition, can promote certain diseases. The dry and hot weather conditions of 2014, for example, supported charcoal rot infections that were seen in both corn and soybean in many locations this year. Weed control and timely applications of herbicide will be crucial preparation steps in mitigating the impacts of climate change in 2015. Weeds not only act as alternate hosts for many pathogens but also deplete soil moisture. Below we present information on the influence of weather variability on development of diseases in Nebraska field crops. In 2015, crop production practices should be well planned to be climate-ready and climate-compliant.