Public Policy Center, University of Nebraska


Date of this Version



Gonsalves, V. M., McLawsen, J. E., Huss, M. T., & Scalora, M. J. (2013). Factor structure and construct validity of the psychopathic personality inventory in a forensic sample. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 36(2), 176-184. doi:10.1016/j.ijlp.2013.01.010


Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Used by permission.


A wealth of research has underscored the strong relationship between PCL-R scores and recidivism. However, mounting criticism cites the PCL-R's cumbersome administration procedures and failure to adequately measure core features associated with the construct of psychopathy (Skeem, Polaschek, Patrick, & Lilienfeld, 2011). In light of these concerns, this study examined the PPI and the PPI-R, which were designed to measure core personality features associated with psychopathy (Lilienfeld & Andrews, 1996; Lilienfeld & Widows, 2005). Study one examined the PPI relative to the PCL-R and examined its factor structure. The instruments shared few significant correlations and neither the PCL-R nor the PPI significantly predicted recidivism. Study two examined the PPI-R relative to the PCL-R, the PPI, both history of violence and future criminal activity and measure of related constructs. The PPI-R was significantly correlated with measures of empathy and criminal thinking and the factors were related to a history of violence and predicted future violent criminal behavior.