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Published by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), Paris, France, and Commonwealth of Learning, Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada

ISBN: 978-92-3-100148-2 (print/pdf) 978-92-3-100158-1 (ePub)

Fengchun Miao, Sanjaya Mishra and Rory McGreal, editors


Copyright 2016, UNESCO and Commonwealth of Learning. Open access material

License: Creative Commons Attribution ShareAlike 3.0 IGO ( by-sa/3.0/igo/)

Users are bound by the terms of use of the UNESCO Open Access Repository ( and the Commonwealth of Learning’s Open Access Repository (


Open Educational Resources (OER) — teaching, learning and research materials that their owners make free for others to use, revise and share — offer a powerful means of expanding the reach and effectiveness of worldwide education.

The Commonwealth of Learning (COL) and UNESCO co-organised the World OER Congress in 2012 in Paris. That Congress resulted in the OER Paris Declaration: a statement that urged governments around the world to release, as OER, all teaching, learning and research materials developed with public funds.

This book, drawing on 15 case studies contributed by 29 OER researchers and policy-makers from 15 countries across six continents, examines the implementation of the pivotal declaration through the thematic lenses of policy, costs and transformation.

The case studies provide a detailed picture of OER policies and initiatives as they are unfolding in different country contexts and adopting a range of approaches, from bottom-up to top-down. The book illuminates the impacts of OER on the costs of producing, distributing and providing access to learning materials, and shows the way that OER can transform the teaching and learning methodology mindset.

Recommendations on key actions to be taken by policy-makers, practitioners, OER developers and users are also outlined, particularly within the context of Education 2030.

Clearly, progress is being made, although more work must be done if the international community is to realise the full potential of OER.


Foreword by the President and CEO, Commonwealth of Learning

Foreword by the Assistant Director-General for Education, UNESCO

Introduction Open Educational Resources: Policy, Costs and Transformation | Rory McGreal, Fengchun Miao and Sanjaya Mishra

Chapter 1 Open Educational Practices in Australia | Carina Bossu

Chapter 2 Open Educational Resources Policy for Developing a Knowledge-Based Economy in the Kingdom of Bahrain | Nawal Ebrahim Al Khater, Hala Amer and Fadheela Tallaq

Chapter 3 The State of Open Educational Resources in Brazil: Policies and Realities | Carolina Rossini and Oona Castro

Chapter 4 Open Educational Resources in Canada | Rory McGreal, Terry Anderson and Dianne Conrad

Chapter 5 Caribbean Open Textbooks Initiative | Neil Butcher, Andrew Moore and Sarah Hoosen

Chapter 6 Open Educational Resources in Germany | Ulf-Daniel Ehlers

Chapter 7 Copyrights in OER Publishing in India: The Case of the National Programme on Technology-Enhanced Learning | Mangala Sunder Krishnan iv

Chapter 8 The Promise of Open Educational Resources in Indonesia | Petra Wiyakti Bodrogini and Mohammad Rinaldi

Chapter 9 Using Open Educational Resources for Undergraduate Programme Development at Wawasan Open University | Teik Kooi Liew

Chapter 10 OERu: Realising Sustainable Education Futures | Wayne Mackintosh

Chapter 11 Integrating ICT for Innovative Educational Solutions in Oman: Leveraging OER Policy to Enhance Teaching and Learning | Maimoona Al Abri and Saif Hamed Hilal Al Busaidi

Chapter 12 The Polish Open e-Textbooks Project as a Policy Model for Openness of Public Educational Resources | Alek Tarkowski

Chapter 13 Open Access to Educational Resources Through Federal Portals and OER in Russia | Svetlana Knyazeva and Aleksei Sigalov

Chapter 14 Open Educational Resources for Early Literacy in Africa: The Role of the African Storybook Initiative | Tessa Welch and Jennifer Glennie

Chapter 15 Developing an Infrastructure Support for Faculty Use of Open Educational Resources: The Case of the Washington State Community and Technical Colleges System | Boyoung Chae and Mark Jenkins

Conclusions | Fengchun Miao, Sanjaya Mishra and Rory McGreal