Nebraska Academy of Sciences


Date of this Version



Published in Transactions of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences, Volume 3 (1976).


Copyright 1976 by author(s).


This paper is an approach to the problem of establishing finite limits and values for mass, energy, and force and their relation to our physical world. In view of new discoveries in astronomy and elementary particle studies, there is a need for a theory that includes possible physical limits of matter and their kinderance to cosmological numbers presently undefined. These relationships, in order to be valid or useful, must show common physical properties to both the microcosmic and macro cosmic worlds. This implies a mathematical theory which unitizes our present knowledge with new information to explain the phenomenon of our physical world under condition of two extremes.

The theory presented basically suggests threshold values for discrete particles or masses as they move towards the speed of light in an accelerated frame of reference. The proposals set forth may appear, in context, to be contrary to the concept of infinite mass or the concept of indetermancy of mass. However, the theory proposes an extention of both the Newtonian and Einsteinian principles which gives rise to a new mathematical approach as to the "smallness and bigness" of the universe. In addition, the proposals include a method by which to link Einstein's mass energy equation with Planck's constant and Newton's gravitational constant, in regard to nuclear properties and their broad extention in cosmological principles.

Some of the conclusions resulting from the investigation indicate as follows: (1) quantization of Einstein's mass energy equation; (2) extention of Newtonian mechanics; (3) a finite gravitational mass in which no fundamental particle may exceed this mass as it moves towards the speed of light; (4) energies of quasi-steller bodies are related to discrete and finite masses which are associated with Newton's gravitational constant; (5) application of the Correspondence Principle to Galilean and Newtonian mechanics and their relation to quantum physics; (6) proposed quantitized gravitational equations to explain central nuclear forces and energies; (7) an extension of the Fitzgerald-Lorenz transformation equations; (8) Significance and meaning of the elusive value 137 and it's relation to two-pi (2Π); (9) application of large cosmological numbers and their relation to the finite world; (10) application of Special Relativity to Newtonian gravity; (11) application of Special Relativity to quantum mechanics; (12) an algebraic solution to general relativity and Poisson's equation of the Newtonian theory.

The writer wishes at the outset of this paper to offer an algebraic presentation of the derived equations and in the concluding portion of the paper give explanations and applications of the equations in support of the foregoing contentions.