U.S. Department of Defense


Date of this Version



Journal of Medical Virology 60:77–85 (2000)


This article is a U.S. government work, and is not subject to copyright in the United States.


We evaluated a vaccinia-vectored vaccine for hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in clinical trials. A Phase I dose-escalation study in 16 volunteers divided into four groups demonstrated that subcutaneous inoculation of approximately 107 plaque-forming units of the recombinant virus was safe and immunogenic. Vaccination of a fifth group of 12 volunteers indicated that neutralizing antibody titers to both vaccinia virus and Hantaan virus were enhanced after a second inoculation. Comparing two routes of vaccination showed that scarification effectively induced neutralizing antibodies in vaccinia virus-naive volunteers but that subcutaneous inoculation was superior to scarification in vaccinia virus-immune individuals. A Phase II, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted among 142 volunteers. Two subcutaneous vaccinations were administered at 4-week intervals. Neutralizing antibodies to Hantaan virus or to vaccinia virus were detected in 72% or 98% of vaccinia virusnaive volunteers, respectively. In contrast, only 26% of the vaccinia virus-immune volunteers developed neutralizing antibody responses to Hantaan virus.