U.S. Department of Agriculture: Agricultural Research Service, Lincoln, Nebraska


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Vogel, K.P., H.J. Gorz, and F.A. Haskins. 1989. Breeding grasses for the future p.105‑122. In: D.A. Sleper, K.H. Asay, and J.F. Pedersen (ed.) Contributions from Breeding Forage and Turf Grasses. Crop Science Special Publication Number 15. Crop Society Society of America. Madison, WI.


U.S. Government work.


Plant breeding, including grass breeding, involves taking a raw product, plant germplasm, and improving or adding value to that germ plasm by manipulating its genetic composition. The value added to the germplasm has a cost. It usually costs in excess of $100,000/yr to maintain a viable, ongoing grass breeding program. The output of a grass breeding program, i.e., the released cultivars and germplasm, should have an economic value in excess of the cost of the breeding program. Grass breeding programs have produced products such as 'Coastal' bermudagrass [Cynodon doclylon (L.) Pers.] where the economic value has greatly exceeded the input cost. Grass breeders have the opportunity to make additional major contributions to the welfare and benefit of future generations of humanity if research goals are carefully delineated and innovative, cost-effective breeding methods are used.