US Geological Survey


Date of this Version



Published in Am. Midl. Nat. 144:428–433.


We used VHF, GPS and satellite radiocollars to study details of long distance movements by four Minnesota wolves (Canis lupus). Number of locations during our tracking ranged from 14 to 274. Farthest distances reached ranged from 183–494 km, and minimum distances traveled (sums of line segments) ranged from 490–4251 km. Numbers of times wolves crossed state, provincial or interstate highways ranged from 1 to 215. All four of the wolves returned to or near their natal territories after up to 179 d and at least two left again.