U.S. Department of Defense



Evan H. Campbell Grant, USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research CenterFollow
Erin Muths, USGS, Fort Collins
Rachel A. Katz, USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center
Stefano Canessa, Zoological Society of London
Michael J. Adams, USGS, Forest and Rangeland Ecosystem Science Center
Jennifer R. Ballard, USFWS, Fort Collins
Lee Berger, James Cook University
Cheryl J. Briggs, University of California-Santa Barbara
Jeremy T. H. Coleman, USFWS, Hadley
Matthew J. Gray, University of Tennessee, Knoxville
M. Camille Harris, USGS - Ecosystems
Reid N. Harris, James Madison University
Blake Hossack, USGS, Aldo Leopold Wilderness Center
Kathryn P. Huyvaert, Colorado State University - Fort Collins
Jonathan Kolby, James Cook University
Karen R. Lips, University of Maryland at College Park
Robert E. Lovich, Naval Facilities Engineering Command Southwest
Hamish I. McCallum, Environmental Futures Research Institute and Griffith School of Environment
Joseph R. Mendelson III, Zoo Atlanta
Priya Nanjappa, Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies
Deanna H. Olson, US Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station
Jenny G. Powers, US National Park Service, Fort Collins
Katherine L. D. Richgels, USGS, National Wildlife Health Center
Robin E. Russell, USGS, National Wildlife Health Center
Benedikt R. Schmidt, KARCH, Neuchatel
Annemarieke Spitzen-van der Sluijs, Reptielen Amfibieë Vissen Onderzoek Nederland
Mary Kay Watry, NPS, Rocky Mountain National Park
Douglas C. Woodhams, University of Massachusetts Boston
C. LeAnn White, USGS, National Wildlife Health Center

Date of this Version



Front Ecol Environ 2017; 15(4): 214–221


© The Ecological Society of America

This document is a U.S. government work and is not subjected to copyright in the United States.



Despite calls for improved responses to emerging infectious diseases in wildlife, management is seldom considered until a disease has been detected in affected populations. Reactive approaches may limit the potential for control and increase total response costs. An alternative, proactive management framework can identify immediate actions that reduce future impacts even before a disease is detected, and plan subsequent actions that are conditional on disease emergence. We identify four main obstacles to developing proactive management strategies for the newly discovered salamander pathogen Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal). Given that uncertainty is a hallmark of wildlife disease management and that associated decisions are often complicated by multiple competing objectives, we advocate using decision analysis to create and evaluate trade-offs between proactive (pre-emergence) and reactive (post-emergence) management options. Policy makers and natural resource agency personnel can apply principles from decision analysis to improve strategies for countering emerging infectious diseases.