Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, Department of


Date of this Version


Document Type



Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (August 10, 2004) 101(32): 11,749-11,754. DOI: 10.1072pnas.040383310.


Copyright 2004, PNAS. Used by permission.


A humanized mouse bearing the HLA-DR2 (DRA/DRB1*1501) pro- tein associated with multiple sclerosis (MS) and the myelin basic protein (MBP) 85–99-specific HLA-DR2-restricted T cell receptor from an MS patient has been used to examine the effectiveness of modified amino acid copolymers poly(F,Y,A,K)n and poly- (V,W,A,K)n in therapy of MBP 85–99-induced experimental auto-immune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in comparison to Copolymer 1 [Copaxone, poly(Y,E,A,K)n]. The copolymers were designed to optimize binding to HLA-DR2. Vaccination, prevention, and treatment of MBP-induced EAE in the humanized mice with copolymers FYAK and VWAK ameliorated EAE more effectively than Copolymer 1, reduced the number of pathological lesions, and prevented the up-regulation of human HLA-DR on CNS microglia. Moreover, VWAK inhibited MBP 85–99-specific T cell proliferation more efficiently than either FYAK or Copolymer 1 and induced anergy of HLA-DR2-restricted transgenic T cells as its principle mechanism. In contrast, FYAK induced proliferation and a pronounced production of the antiinflammatory T helper 2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-10 from nontransgenic T cells as its principle mechanism of immunosup- pression. Thus, copolymers generated by using different amino acids inhibited di