Date of this Version
Published in Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology 442:5 (2001), pp. 791–800; doi: 10.1007/s004240100604.
A 30% decrease in osmolarity stimulated 3H-taurine, 3H-GABA and glutamate (followed as 3H-D-aspartate) efflux from rat hippocampal slices. 3H-taurine efflux was activated rapidly but inactivated slowly. It was decreased markedly by 100 μM 5-nitro-(3-phenylpropylamino) benzoic acid (NPPB) and 600 μM niflumic acid and inhibited strongly by tyrphostins AG18, AG879 and AG112 (25–100 μM), suggesting a tyrosine kinase-mediated mechanism. Hyposmolarity activated the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) extracellular-signal-related kinase-1/2 (ERK1/ERK2) and p38, but blockade of this reaction did not affect 3H-taurine efflux. Hyposmosis also activated phosphatidyl-inositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and its prevention by wortmannin (100 nM) essentially abolished 3H-tau-rine efflux. 3H-taurine efflux was insensitive to the protein kinase C (PKC) blocker chelerythrine (2.5 μM) or to cytochalasin E (3 μM). The release of 3H-GABA and 3H-D-aspartate occurred by a different mechanism, characterized by rapid activation and inactivation, insensitivity to NPPB, niflumic acid, tyrphostins, or wortmannin. 3H-GABA and 3H-D-aspartate efflux was not due to external [NaCl] decrease, cytosolic Ca2+ increase or depolarization, or to reverse operation of the carrier. This novel mechanism of amino acid release may be mediated by Ca2+-independent exocytosis and modulated by PKC and actin cytoskeleton disruption, as suggested by its inhibition by chelerythrine and potentiation by 100 nM phorbol-12-myristate-13 acetate (PMA) and cytochalasin E. GABA and glutamate osmosensitive efflux may explain the hyposmolarity-elicited increase in amplitude of inhibitory and excitatory postsynaptic potentials in hippocampal slices as well as the hyperexcitability associated with hyponatraemia.
Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology Commons, Cell and Developmental Biology Commons, Immunology and Infectious Disease Commons, Medical Sciences Commons, Veterinary Microbiology and Immunobiology Commons, Veterinary Pathology and Pathobiology Commons