Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, Department of



Document Type


Date of this Version



Vaccines 2020, 8, 364; doi:10.3390/vaccines8030364


2020 by the authors


Group B coxsackieviruses (CVBs) belonging to the genus, Enterovirus and contain six serotypes that induce various diseases, whose occurrence may involve the mediation of more than one serotype. We recently identified immunogenic epitopes within coxsackieviruses B3 (CVB3) viral protein 1 that induce anti-viral T cell responses in mouse models of CVB infections. In our investigations to determine the protective responses of the viral epitopes, we unexpectedly noted that animals immunized with complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) alone and later challenged with CVB3 were completely protected against myocarditis. Similarly, the pancreatitis-inducing ability of CVB3 was remarkably reduced to only 10% in the CFA group as opposed to 73.3% in the control group that received no CFA. Additionally, no mortalities were noted in the CFA group, whereas 40% of control animals died during the course of 21 days post-infection with CVB3. Taken together, our data suggest that the adjuvant effects of CFA may be sufficient for protection against CVB infections. These observations may provide new insights into our understanding of the occurrence of viral infections.