Virology, Nebraska Center for


Date of this Version



J Clin Virol. 2013 September ; 58(1): 233–239.


Crown copyright © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V. Used by permission.


Background—Small molecular CCR5 inhibitors represent a new class of drugs for treating HIV-1 infection. The evaluation of the primary resistance mutations associated with entry inhibitors during HIV-1 perinatal transmission is required because they may have a profound impact on the clinical management in MTCT.

Objectives—To evaluate the primary resistance mutations to maraviroc and vicriviroc during perinatal transmission and analyze the sensitivity of Env derived from mother–infant pairs to maraviroc.

Study design—Nine MIPs infected by subtype C HIV-1 were recruited to analyze the prevalence and transmission of primary resistance mutations to maraviroc and vicriviroc. Moreover, Env derived from six MIPs were employed to construct provirus clones and to analyze the sensitivity to maraviroc.

Results—Mutations A316T, conferring partial resistance to maraviroc, T307I and R315Q, both conferring partial resistance to vicriviroc are prevalent in mother and infant cohorts, indicating the transmission of primary resistance mutations during HIV-1 perinatal transmission. However, the mutations of acutely infected mothers seem to directly transmit to their corresponding infants, while some mutations at low frequency of chronically infected mothers would be lost during transmission. Moreover, provirus clones derived from acutely infected MIPs are less susceptible to maraviroc than those from chronically infected MIPs.

Conclusions—Our study suggests that the transmission mode of primary resistance mutations and the sensitivity to maraviroc are dependent on infection status of MIPs either acutely or chronically infected. These results may indicate that higher dose of maraviroc could be needed for treatment of acutely infected MIPs compared to chronically infected MIPs.