Virology, Nebraska Center for


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Bullard, B.L.; Weaver, E.A. Strategies Targeting Hemagglutinin as a Universal Influenza Vaccine. Vaccines 2021, 9, 257. 10.3390/vaccines9030257


2021 by the authors.


Influenza virus has significant viral diversity, both through antigenic drift and shift, which makes development of a vaccine challenging. Current influenza vaccines are updated yearly to in- clude strains predicted to circulate in the upcoming influenza season, however this can lead to a mismatch which reduces vaccine efficacy. Several strategies targeting the most abundant and im- munogenic surface protein of influenza, the hemagglutinin (HA) protein, have been explored. These strategies include stalk-directed, consensus-based, and computationally derived HA immunogens. In this review, we explore vaccine strategies which utilize novel antigen design of the HA protein to improve cross-reactive immunity for development of a universal influenza vaccine.