Virology, Nebraska Center for


Document Type


Date of this Version



Teklemariam, A.D.; Al-Hindi, R.R.; Alharbi, M.G.; Alotibi, I.; Azhari, S.A.; Qadri, I.; Alamri, T.; Esmael, A.; Harakeh, S. Isolation and Characterization of a Novel Lytic Phage, vB_PseuP-SA22, and Its Efficacy against Carbapenem- Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Antibiotics 2023, 12, 497. https://


Open access.


Carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CRPA) poses a serious public health threat in multiple clinical settings. In this study, we detail the isolation of a lytic bacteriophage, vB_PseuPSA22, from wastewater using a clinical strain of CRPA. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis identified that the phage had a podovirus morphology, which agreed with the results of whole genome sequencing. BLASTn search allowed us to classify vB_PseuP-SA22 into the genus Bruynoghevirus. The genome of vB_PseuP-SA22 consisted of 45,458 bp of double-stranded DNA, with a GC content of 52.5%. Of all the open reading frames (ORFs), only 26 (44.8%) were predicted to encode certain functional proteins, whereas the remaining 32 (55.2%) ORFs were annotated as sequences coding functionally uncharacterized hypothetical proteins. The genome lacked genes coding for toxins or markers of lysogenic phages, including integrases, repressors, recombinases, or excisionases. The phage produced round, halo plaques with a diameter of 1.5 ± 2.5 mm on the bacterial lawn. The TEM revealed that vB_PseuP-SA22 has an icosahedral head of 57.5 ± 4.5 nm in length and a short, non-contractile tail (19.5 ± 1.4 nm). The phage showed a latent period of 30 min, a burst size of 300 PFU/infected cells, and a broad host range. vB_PseuP-SA22 was found to be stable between 4–60 oC for 1 h, while the viability of the virus was reduced at temperatures above 60 oC. The phage showed stability at pH levels between 5 and 11. vB_PauP-SA22 reduced the number of live bacteria in P. aeruginosa biofilm by almost five logs. The overall results indicated that the isolated phage could be a candidate to control CRPA infections. However, experimental in vivo studies are essential to ensure the safety and efficacy of vB_PauP-SA22 before its use in humans.