Wildlife Damage Management, Internet Center for


Date of this Version



Published in Proceedings of the Fifth Eastern Pine and Meadow Vole Symposium, Gettysburg, PA, March 4–5, 1981, Ross E. Byers, editor. Copyright © 1981 Hasbrouck, Servello, Tipton, and Kirkpatrick.


Previous field studies at Virginia Tech have found differences in reproductive output of pine voles in abandoned and maintained orchards. Cengel et a1. (1978), trapping in northern Virginia, found higher levels of reproduction in a maintained orchard than in an abandoned orchard. The breeding season of voles extended into winter in the maintained orchard but ceased in late fall and winter in the abandoned orchard. Noffsinger (1976), working in orchards near Roanoke, Virginia, found a higher fatality rate in the maintained orchard and a year-round breeding season; however, the percentage of pregnant females declined in winter. Reproduction was lower in the abandoned orchard in late fall and winter with no pregnant females caught in March.